Overuse Injuries

overuse injuries sport injury

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

There are 2 types of injuries : Acute injuries and overuse injuries. Acute injuries are usually caused by a single traumatic event. Here are some examples :

  • Wrist fractures

  • Ankle sprains

  • Shoulder dislocations

Acute injuries are less common in sport than overuse injuries. Overuse injuries are usually subtle and appear over time, making them difficult to diagnose and treat. Here is some example :

  • Tennis elbows

  • Swimmer’s shoulder

  • Pitcher’s elbow

  • Runner’s knee

  • Achilles tendinitis

  • Shin splints

Why

Human body is extraordinary to adapt to physical stress. We’re used of thinking that « stress » is bad for our emotional well-being, but physical stress is simply doing an exercise or activity. This is beneficial for our muscles, tendons, ligaments and bones. This physical stress causes an internal process called remodeling. Remodeling process involves both the breakdown and the build up of tissue. It’s necessary to have a good balance between 2, if breakdown occurs more rapidly than buildup, an overuse injury occurs.

Causes

overuse injuries sport injury gym fail

Usually, it’s training errors that cause overuse injuries. These errors are too fast acceleration of intensity or duration or activity frequency. These injuries can also happen to people who return to the sport/activity after an injury. They try to make up for lost time as quickly as possible to reach the level they had before the injury. Doing an exercise with a good technique is important to avoid overuse injuries. When the exercise’s technique is bad, it creates overuse injuries. It’s for this reason that coaches, athletic trainers and teachers can play a preventive role so that athletes avoid overuse injures.

There are people who more easily have overuse injuries. An unbalance between strength and flexibility around certain joints predisposes some people to have this type of injury. Body alignment, such as knock-knees, bowlegs, unequal leg lengths and flat or high arched feet, also impact overuse injuries. There are also people who have weak links because of old wounds, incomplete rehabilitation of wounds or others anatomy factors.

Other factors must also be taken into account as equipment such as the type of running shoe or ballet shoe and terrain (hard versus soft surface in aerobic dance or running).

Diagnosis

Generally the diagnosis is based on the athlete’s history and physical examination. It’s recommended to make a diagnosis with a sports medicine specialist with a specific interest and knowledge of your sport. In some situations X-rays, bone scan and MRI may be necessary.

Treatment

overuse injuries sport injury ice

Here are some recommendations for treating an overuse injuries :

  • Cutting back the intensity, duration and frequency of an activity

  • Adopting a hard/easy workout schedule and crosstraining with other activities to maintain fitness levels

  • Learning about proper training and technique from a coach or athletic trainer

  • Performing proper warm-up activities before and cool down after

  • Using ice after an activity for minor aches and pain

  • Using anti-inflammatory medications as necessary

If symptoms persist, a sport medicine specialist may create a more detailed treatment plan for your specific condition. This may involve an exam of your training program and an evaluation of predisposing factors.

Prevention

Majority of overuse injuries can be avoided with a proper training program, common sense and learning to listen your own body. The quote : « No pain, no gain » doesn’t apply here. The 10% rule helps a lot to get things to the next level.

In general, you should increase the training’s intensity to a maximum of 10% per week. This allows your body to have enough time for recovery and response. This rule should be used to increase pace or milestone for walkers or runners. Or for the weights amount to increase for strength training programs. In strength training, add flexibility exercises and core stability exercises help tremendously to minimize overuse injuries.

It’s recommended to seek advice from sports medicine specialist or athletic trainer to prevent chronic or recurring problems. Your training program can also be modified to maintain fitness levels safety while you recover from your injuries. You must return to the sport only if an authorization is granted by a health professional.

Remember, it’s very important to warm-up before training and cool down after training.

Stats

3.5 millions of children are treated for overuse injures every year.

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-Steph

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Label And Format

 data science tableau label format

I have just enrolled in a Data Science course on Udemy  and I learned good stuff.

Our bar chart has colors by region but imagines that this bar chart is on a wall of an open space or in a report.

With labels, we can make this bar chart more clear, easier to understand.

In this bar chart, there are all necessary information: representative’s names, regions where representatives make sales and total sales for each representative in Swiss francs.

But, there is a problem. For example, if you ask for someone to say how many sales made Bill. This person must find Bill and see on the vertical axis to the left the value. Here we can see, it’s 1750.

But if we take the James case, we see that it’s between 1000 and 1500. James is far from the vertical axis and it’s difficult to say the true value.

That’s means, all people need to make effort to extract the bar chart’s information.

This it should not be the case because a Data Scientist searches always the best ways to communicate the information. This process is to help people to understand and extract the information in the easiest way.

Start with labels.

« Labels » button allows you to add text information in your bar chart.

data science tableau label format

You will add a label with the SUM(TotalSales) information

To do this, you click on SUM(TotalSales) and press and maintain the key Ctrl or Command on your keyboard and drag and drop SUM(TotalSales) on « Label ».

data science tableau label format

Now you can see the total sales value at the top of each bar.

data science tableau label format

The bar chart is easier to read because there is the total value of sales for each representative.

it’s time to add more information using the labels.

Use the « Rep » information. Click on « Rep », press and hold « Ctrl » key or Command key on your keyboard and drag and drop « Rep » to « Label ».

data science tableau label format

Now you can read the representatives names at the top of the bars.

data science tableau label format

You can also add the region. I’ll show you another way to add « Region » in « Labels ». Click « Region » in « Dimensions » and drag and drop « Region » on « Labels ».

data science tableau label format data science tableau label format

 

But it’s redundant because you can read the representatives names below and the regions at the top of the bar chart.

And each region has its own color. As it’s redundant, we remove « Rep » and « Region » from « Labels » by dragging and dropping out.

data science tableau label format data science tableau label format

 

It’s better, it remains only SUM(TotalSales).

data science tableau label format

Let’s go to the next level, we will publish our labels.

To do this, do a right-click on « Labels » and click on « … » button.

data science tableau label format

It allows you to have your own text. For example write « Sales : » and click on « OK » button.

data science tableau label format

Now you can see that your text appears at the top of the bars.

data science tableau label format

Well, click on « Labels » and click on « … » button.

data science tableau label format

Delete the text « Sale : »and click on « OK » button.

data science tableau label format

We will see now how to format your bar chart. This is the last step before your bar chart is in production.

You will change the labels size. Click on « Labels » and click on « Font »

data science tableau label format

Select « 12 » and bold.

data science tableau label format

Oh, you can do the same thing by clicking on « … » button

data science tableau label format

You have the possibility to change the color but we will keep the color black

data science tableau label format

Now you’re going to change the label type. Right-click on SUM(TotalSales) and click on « Format… ».

data science tableau label format

In fact the labels have their own format and you can change that by clicking on « Label » but all the other thing on Tableau give their format options make a right-click on it.

So when you click on « Format », you’ll see 2 tabs : « Axis » and « Pane ».

Select the tab « Pane » because that’s where the labels of our bar chart.

data science tableau label format

By clicking on « Alignement », you can change the text’s direction of the labels.

data science tableau label format

But what you can’t do with the « Labels » button is to change the digital type.

data science tableau label format

Return on the tab « Pane », we’ll change the numbers in currencies. Click « Numbers » and select « Currency(custom) ». You can also change the currency type in the « Prefix/suffix ».

data science tableau label format

To simplify, you delete 2 decimals in « Decimal Places ».

data science tableau label format

As you can see on my bar chart, the SUM(TotalSales) is vertical at the top of each bar. To change the direction of the label text, click « Alignement » in the « Pane » tab.

data science tableau label format

But there is a problem. Some bars don’t have SUM(TotalSales). To fix this, right-click on each bar and select « Mark Label » and « Alwlays Show ».

data science tableau label format

Now, the bar chart is more understandable.

Let’s put the units in thousands. Click on « Numbers » => « Currency(custom) » => « Units » => « Thousands (K) ».

data science tableau label format

Add a decimal in « Decimal Places ».

data science tableau label format

That’s better, we can see Swiss francs sales for each sales representative.

Look, there’s something you need to know You can’t change the size of the text in the tab « Pane ».

If you click on « Font » and change the size, it will not change anything on your bar chart.

data science tableau label format

This is because the font size in the « Label » button dominates the font that is in the tab « Pane ».

data science tableau label format

Ok, we changed the labels format. Now, let’s change the axes format.

To do this, right-click on the vertical axis and select « Format ».

data science tableau label format

Click on the « Axis » tab and change the text size with « Font » to 12.

data science tableau label format

Then, right-click on the horizontal axis. Selects « Format ».

data science tableau label format

And in the « Header » tab, you change the text size with « Font » to 12.

data science tableau label format

Oooh, do you see ? Mathiew is cut off. To arrange this, enlarge the bar chart by clicking and dragging on the right.

data science tableau label format

Right-click on « Central » in the top axis and select « Format ».

data science tableau label format

And changes the text’s size with « Font » to 12 and bold.

data science tableau label format

Now, look at the top of the bar chart. The « Region/Rep » line is useless because we know that Central, East and West are the regions and the representatives names are at the bottom of the bar chart.

data science tableau label format

To change it, right-click on « Region/Rep » and select « Hide Field Label for Columns ».

data science tableau label format

if you want to improve the title « TotalSales » by adding a space, right-click on the vertical axis and select « Edit axis ».

data science tableau label format

In the « General » tab, add a space in the title and click « OK ».

data science tableau label format

Let’s do one more thing. We’re going to put all the « Total Sales » in Swiss francs. Make a right-click on the vertical axis and select « Format ».

data science tableau label format

Click on tab « Axis » => « Numbers » => « Currency(custom) ».

In « Decimal Places », you put « 0 ». In « Units », you put « Thousand(K) ». In « Prefix/Suffix », you put « CHF ».

data science tableau label format

Well, you did a good job. Now you know how to change the format of the charts in Tableau.

Share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

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