Meniscal Tears

meniscus

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

Meniscus tear

meniscus tear

Meniscal tear is one of the most common knee injuries in athletes. This is caused after a contact injury or a traumatic twist. The meniscus is a wedge-shaped cartilage that provides a cushion in the medial and lateral portion of the knee joint and acts as a « shock absorber ». It’s located in the area of joints contact to prevent the bones rub between them because of the bodyweight. It’s hard and rubbery to help cushion the joints and keep the knees stable.

It’s important to also know that the meniscus helps to nourish the knee by facilitating the diffusion of joint fluid. With this injury, athletes can experience acute pain with a swelling and often a catching or locking sensation.

Diagnose

A meniscus injury can be diagnosed on the basis of the story that the patient provides and a physical examination of the knee.

An orthopedic surgeon my also use other techniques to further diagnose such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which gives a 3-dimensional image of the inside of the knee joint. In some cases, a surgeon can perform an arthroscopic inspection of the articulation, this is a minimally invasive surgical procedure.

Treatment

knee brace

A small meniscus tear can be treated with rest, ice and anti-inflammatory medications. When a meniscus tear causes a significant loss of movement or catching, the appropriate treatment is often a surgical operation. Depending on the location and type of tear, the treatment may be a simple arthroscopy to remove the torn fragment. Depending on how quickly the inflammation disappears, athletes can return to a full activity after a week or months.

For athletes with a repairable tear, sutures are used to sew the meniscus. In this situation, the knee is braced for 6 weeks. These athletes take at least 3-6 months to back to their activities but maintain the full cushion in their knees.

Prevention

There is not really any way to prevent a meniscus tear apart from a conditioning program to try to prevent an acromioclavicular ligament (ACL) tear and knee instability.

Stats

Women have meniscus tears more often than men and at an earlier age. These tears are often associated with an acromioclavicular ligament injury (ACL)

There are some variables of meniscus tears can be repaired and despite repair, they aren’t always heal. But arthritis can be avoided in the majority of cases when repair is successful. One study shows that 60% of patients who undergo meniscectomy (partial elimination) had some degree of progressive arthritis.

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-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

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Articular Cartilage Injuries

articular cartilage injury

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interessted in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

Definition

Articular cartilage is difficult to understand because there are 3 types of cartilages in the body : articular of hyaline cartilage (covers joint surfaces), fibrocartilage (knee meniscus, vertebral disk) and elastic cartilage (outer ear). These cartilage’s types differ in their structure, elasticity and strength.

Articular cartilage is a complex element, it’s a living tissue that is on the joint’s surface. The function is to provide a low friction surface to allow the joint to withstand weight loads through the range of motion needed to perform activity of daily living. To put it simply, articular cartilage is a very thin shock absorber. It’s built in 5 distinct layers and each layer has a structural and biochemical difference.

Injury

articular cartilage injury

Articular cartilage injury may be due to trauma or progressive degeneration (wear and tear). This can be mechanical destruction, a direct blow or other trauma. The healing of articular cartilage cells depends on the severity of the damage and the location of the lesion. Articular cartilage has no direct blood supply so it has very little ability to repair itself. It the lesion penetrates the bone under the cartilage, the bone provides blood in the area which improves the chances of healing.

Mechanical degeneration (wear and tear) of articular cartilage occurs with progressive loss of normal cartilage structure and function. This loss begins with the softening of the cartilage, then progresses to fragmentation. As the loss of articular cartilage lining continue, the underlying bone no longer has any protections against normal wear and tear of daily life and begins to get damaged leading to osteoarthritis.

In many cases, a patient experiences knee swelling and vague pain. At this stage, continuous physical activity isn’t possible. If a loose body is present, words such as « locking » or « catching » might be used to explain the problem. With wear and tear , the patient often experiences stiffness, decreased range of motion, joint pain and/or swelling.

Diagnostic

The physician examines the knee to look for a decrease in range of motion, pain along the joint line, swelling, fluid on the knee, abnormal alignment of the joint’s bones, and ligament or meniscal injury.

Cartilage lesions are difficult to diagnose and it’s possible that the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or arthroscopy may be necessary. Plain X- rays don’t usually diagnose articular cartilage problems but they used to rule out other abnormalities.

Treatment

articular cartilage injury treatment

 

Articular cartilage injury that doesn’t penetrate the bone doesn’t repair itself. A lesion that penetrates the bone can heal but the type of cartilage created is structurally unorganized and doesn’t work as well as the original cartilage.

Lesion less than 2 cm have the best prognosis and the best treatment options. These options are arthroscopic surgery using techniques to remove damaged cartilage and increase blood flow from the underlying bone (drilling, pick procedure or microfracture ).

For smaller lesion of articular cartilage surgery is not required.

For larger lesion, it’s necessary to transplant the articular cartilage from another area of the body. Talk to your doctor or specialist to have more information about the decision to have a surgical operation.

For patients with osteoarthritis, non-surgical treatment consists of physical therapy, lifestyle modification (for example reducing activity), bracing, supportive devices, oral and injection drugs (like non-steroidal inflammatory drugs, cartilage protective drugs) and medical management.

Surgical options depend on the severity of osteoarthritis and may provide a reduction in symptoms that are usually short-lived. Total osteoarthritis may relieve the symptom of advanced osteoarthritis but this usually requires a change in the lifestyle and/or level of activity of the patient.

Statistics

Based on published studies, the overall prevalence of articular cartilage injury in the knee is 36% among all athlete and 59% among asymptomatic basketball players and runners.

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-Steph

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Acromioclavicular Joint Injury

acromioclavicular joint injury

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

Acromioclavicular joint is a joint between the clavicle and the scapula. Acromion is a continuation of the scapular spine and hooks over anteriorly. It articulate with the clavicle (collar bone ) to form the acromioclavicular joint.

Problems types

The most common problems are arthritis, fracture and separation. Arthritis is characterized by a loss of joint’s cartilage. Arthritis of acromioclavicular joint is common with weight lifter, especially with bench press and a little less with shoulder press. When there is a problem with the rotator cuff, it’s possible that there is also acromioclavicular joint’s arthritis.

Acromioclavicular separation

acromioclavicular joint injury type grade

When there is an acromioclavicular joint separation, it means that the ligament that connects the acromion and clavicle is damaged and that the 2 structures don’t align properly. Separation’s state can be weak or severe, that is why there is a system of « grade » according to which ligament is torn and the severity of the tear.

Grade I Injury – This is the weakest damage and the acromioclavicular joint is still aligned.

Grade II Injury – This is an average damage. Ligaments are only stretched but not fully torn. In case of stress (physical effort), the acromioclavicular joint becomes painful and unstable.

Grade III Inury – This is a serious damage. Ligaments are completely torn and the collar bone is no longer attached to the scapula, which creates a visible deformity.

Treatment of acromioclavicular joint arthritis

If the rest, ice, medications and change of the training program (changing the exercises) don’t work, the next step is a shot of cortisone. A shot of cortisone in the joint may have calmed the pain and may be permanently swollen. As each individual is unique, the effects may vary and it’s possible that it doesn’t swell permanently.

If non-surgical methods fail, it’s possible to perform a surgical operation. The pain is localized at the bones end that make contact with each other and the goal of the operation is to remove some of the end of the clavicle. This ambulatory surgery can be done with a small incision of 1 inch (2.5 cm) long or with the arthroscopy technique with 2-3 incisions. The results and recovery of these 2 surgical techniques are about the same. Most patients have a full movement by 6 weeks and can return to do sport by 12 weeks.

Treatment for acromioclavicular separation

Separation can create very painful injuries, so the first thing to do is to decrease the pain. Hold the arm in a sling, put ice and pack the shoulder for 20-30 minutes every 2 hours as needed. Acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications can also help calm the pain.

When the pain begins to subside, it’s important to move the fingers, wrists and elbow (and eventually the shoulders) in order to avoid having stiff or « frozen » shoulder. The length of time needed to regain complete movement and function depends on the severity or injury’s grade.

Recovery from Grade I acromioclavicular separation usually takes 10-14 days while Grade III takes 6-8 weeks.

When surgery

Grade I and II separations require very rarely surgery. With a Grade III injury, after surgery, it’s possible to have full body physical activity with some restrictions.

Statistics

  • More males than females suffer acromioclavicular joint injuries

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-Steph

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Ankle Sprain

ankle sprain inversion lateral

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

A sprain is a stretch injury of the ligament that supports the ankle. This sprain often happens to the ligament outside the ankle when the foot is twisted inward (inverted). It’s a « lateral » ankle sprain that localized to the ligaments in the outer/lower part of the ankle.

A « high » ankle sprain (or syndesmosis injury) is a ligament stretch injury that holds the tibia and fibula together in the lower leg. This type of sprain happens when the ankle is twisted outward, it’s an eversion injury.

ankle sprain inversion eversion syndesmatic lateral medial high

When there is a sprain, the ankle is tender and swollen on the outside, above and at the front of the ankle bone, but the pain doesn’t come from the ankle bone. A sprain can create moderate or severe pain that can prevent the foot from supporting the body weight.

ankle sprain stretch injury grade

Treatment of sprained ankle

ankle sprain rice rest ice compression elevation

The basic treatment is what we call RICE (rest, ice, compression and elevation). During a severe sprain, it’s advisable to use a walking boot to help support the ankle.

Recovery time for a « lateral » sprain is usually 1-3 weeks and for a « high » sprain is usually 3-6 weeks.

Rehabilitation can begin a few days after the sprain when swelling decreases. The rheabilitation has 3 goals :

  1. Restore movement and flexibility

  2. Restore strength

  3. Restore balance

How to avoid a ankle sprain

It’s possible to use a brace to help prevent sprains. There are several types of neoprene or elastic materials. Here are some models on Amazon, click here .

Statistics

  • Ankle sprains are more common in all sport that involve cutting and pivoting

Subscribe to my newsletter and share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

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Topic Of Content To Publish On Internet

internet content blog video youtube channel podcast

I watched an Olivier Roland’s video  and I learned good stuff.

Many people are wondering how to find the content to publish on a blog or a Youtube channel. Before creating my blog, I was also asking this question and maybe you’re asking yourself this question today.

You want to create a blog or a Youtube channel for several reasons. And I think one of the reasons is that you want to build your own company. In this case, I advise you that your content is influenced by these 3 things :

  • Passion – It must be a subject that fascinates you.

  • Skill – It would be nice if it’s something you already have skills in.

  • Economic potential – If your idea has no economic potential, you will not be able to build your own company.

There is something surprising with the economic potential. It’s possible to create a profitable blog or Youtube channel on a subject that doesn’t interest you. For example, there is a person who has a blog to teach math to help students in school to pass their exams. This person isn’t passionate about mathematics but it’s not something he hates. I know that in few years, he will stop this company even if it works well because he will have lost motivation. And that happens often when it’s not a passion.

This case is an exception because it’s very difficult to succeed when you aren’t in a subject that fascinates you. Statistics show that 95% of bloggers give up after 6 months. These are statistics from « Meta-blogs Technorati » which based on millions of blog creations.

I really advise you to create the content on one of your passions otherwise you finish in the 95% of people who give up after 6 months. Outside regulated areas like medicine, you can create a blog in an area where you don’t have skills and learn little by little. You can do that but you have to be transparent about your skills to your audience.

passion

That’s what I do. I had no knowledge of anatomy and biomechanics in sport when I started publishing articles. Everyday I do my research and I learn little by little. The best example is Data Science. I had no knowledge, I paid for a class and I show you what I’m learning and I have not finished this class yet. At the beginning of my articles, you see my sources and that’s my strength.

Which means that you can’t be passionate and have no skill at the start. But it’s not possible to have a profitable blog or Youtube channel if the sector where you start has no economic potential.

To find out if you sector has an economic potential, there are several criteria to check :

  • Are there forums or Facebook groups on this topic ?

    If you find forums or Facebook groups on the subject that you want to do, it’s because there are people who spend several minutes every day discussing this subject. These people are likely to visit your blog or Youtube channel, if you share the content that may interest them.

  • Are there already blogs or Youtube channels on this subject ?

    If you find blogs or Youtube channels that have existed for several years and with a large number of subscribers, it’s that you can become one of their competitors.

  • Are there many people who are passionnate about this ?

    Creating a profitable blog or Youtube channel is like create a company, it’s necessary to do a market research. What is interesting today is that it’s possible to do this with internet. Search on internet your future competitors and analyze them.

There are still a dozen criteria but with these 3 criteria, you’ll have a good base to select your passion that has the best economic potential to create your company with a blog or a Youtube channel.

Share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Step

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Contractions ? Better muscles ?

muscle contraction

What is your goal at the gym, lift the heaviest weight possible or have volume and be dry ?

For me it’s to have volume, be dry and have power, otherwise I would do Powerlifting. To achieve this, I focus to get the highest quality of muscle contraction on each rep.

For example for the curl, I tell to myself that I contract my biceps to move my arm rather than I move my arm to move the weight, it changes the whole mindset. Once a coach has helped me and during reps, he tapped me the muscle that I had worked to stay focused on it. I tell you, congestion is not the same you’ll be surprised.

concentric eccentric contraction

This is something that is learned as the technique. At first, the ideal is that you start with lightweight to feel your muscles during movements. Then you increase the weight in each series. When you can’t feel your muscles working, it means the weight is too heavy, it’s necessary to decrease a little so that you can feel your muscles work again.

Biomechanics experts often speak of the benefits of leverage with your muscle and you can do it, lift heavy with minimum effort but we want the opposite. For example your shoulders, more you bent your elbows on lateral raise or fly and more it’s easier to raise the weight. But when you stretch your elbows just to be slightly bent, chest and middle delts are forced to work harder and your muscles will grow faster.

level contraction

You surely already know, the more you do the exercise slowly, the harder it is. Slow down the speed improves the concentric and eccentric effect, which allows to have optimal contraction. I don’t mean you should do all your exercises in “slow motion” but do some sets like this can help you to have better results.

A technique used by bodybuilders is to keep your muscles contracted for 2 seconds at the end of each rep. I warn you, if it’s something new for you, may be you can’t be able to do your usual number of reps, you’ll really really feel your muscle there.

keep contraction muscle

I’m never going to say to abandon barbells and dumbbell for cables equipment but this is an excellent complement. The constant tension on your muscles with cables boost the quality of each contraction.

Try and tell me what it did to you. I’m sure you’ll feel your muscles differently and your congestion will be demonic.

-Steph

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