Rotator Cuff Tears

rotator cuff tear anatomy shoulder

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

Rotator cuff is a group of 4 muscles and their tendons that together form a « cuff » around the head of the humerus (upper end of the arm). The 4 muscle, originate from the scapula (shoulder blade), are upraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis and teres minor. Tendons of each muscle fit on the humerus tuberosity.

Rotator cuff’s functions :

  • Lift the arm

  • Turn the arm

  • Stabilize the humerus in the joint

Causes

rotator cuff tear anatomy

The causes of a rotator cuff tear can be an acute injury such as a fall or because of chronic wear with tendon degeneration. For people over 40 years old, the pinching of the tendon on the underside of the scapula may participate in tearing.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of rotator cuff tears is based on an examination and/or diagnosis study such as a MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) to confirm the diagnosis. Diagnosis early on in the first symptoms and rotator cuff’s treatment can help to boost the treatment’s results.

Treatment

Goals treatment are to relieve pain and restore strength to the injured shoulder. Several tears in rotator cuff can be treated without surgery. Anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid injections and physical therapy can all be beneficial in treating the symptoms of a tear in the cuff.

Even though a full-thickness tear needs to be cured with surgery, it’s possible to use non-surgical treatments to have a satisfactory function in some cases.

Surgery

rotator cuff tear anatomy surgery

Surgery is recommended if there is persistent pain or shoulder weakness that doesn’t improve with non-surgical treatment. Often patients who have surgery indicate nocturnal pain and difficulty using the arm for lifting and reaching. Many will indicate persistent symptoms despite several months of treatment and limited use of the arm.

Surgery is also recommended for active people who use the arm for overhead work or sports.

Surgical options

The type of repair performed is based on the findings at surgery. A partial tear my necessarily only a trimming or smoothing procedure called a debridment. A full-thickness tear with the tendon torn from its insertion on the humerus is repaired directly on the bone.

3 techniques are used for rotator cuff repair :

  • Open repair (through a traditional incision)

  • Mini-open repair (partially assisted by a camera view, with a smaller incision)

  • Arthroscopic (performed with only a small camera inserted through multiple small puncture wounds)

Recovery and rehabilitation process

Whether for the treatment of non-surgical and surgical rotator cuff tear, rehabilitation has a very important role. Usually recovery is at least 6 months or more depending on the extent of the tear.

When there is a tear, there is frequently a loss of shoulder movement. An exercise or physical therapy program is needed to restore strength and improve shoulder function.

Although surgery repairs the defect of the tendon, the muscles around the arm remain weak and an important effort is necessary in the rehabilitation so that the procedure is a success. After surgery, a complete re-education can last several months.

Subscribe to my newsletter and share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

Mistake To Avoid During A Presentation

mistake presentation the family oussama ammar

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE !!! I watched an Olivier Roland’s video  and I learned some good stuff.

2-3 years ago, I participated in Robert Kiyosake’s « Rich Dad Workshop » , it’s the author of « Rich Dad, Poor Dad ». I returned to this workshop a few months ago and the speakers were less dynamic than the last time. Besides, there is one person who made a classic mistake that we make during a presentation. This error is to display a text on a big screen and read it. It’s really boring.

People read fast

speed reading

Reading a text that is displayed on a large screen in front of everyone is a bad idea because it breaks the presentation’s dynamism. This creates a moment of flutter because you’re disconnected from your audience. But, there is an even more scandalous reason that this one. Typically, people read between 250 and 500 words per minute while the average speech rate is approximately 150 words per minute. This means that people have already understood the text before you have read the half aloud. The bottom line is that people have to wait for you to finish reading the text aloud when they have already read everything and that is awful, pffffffff.

Most difficult thing in a presentation is to keep the audience’s attention and reading aloud a text that is displayed doesn’t create any surprise’s effects. If you absolutely have to read a text during a presentation, read this text without displaying it on the big screen. It will not be the most excellent thing in the world but people will discover the content as you speak. In this way, the audience will be more likely to be attentive to what you say.

I don’t know if you know but there is a little trick when we make a presentation with PowerPoint. In PowerPoint, it’s possible to see the text before it appear on the big screen, it’s Presenter View . With this configuration, there is a private monitor (your laptop) and a public monitor (big screen). This allows you to see in advance what the audience will see.

To improve the quality of my presentation, there is a very interesting book by Garr Reynolds « Presentation Zen » . With this book, you’ll make cool presentation.

Subscribe to my newsletter and share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here.

Create Bins and View Distributions

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

I have just enrolled in a Data Science course on Udemy  and I learned good stuff.

It’s cool, you finished the 1st part. Now we’re going to do more deep Data Mining analysis with this bank’s dataset.

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

To make these analyzes more deep, we’ll create a more statistical approach.

To do that we will create a new tab.

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

For this new tab, we want to understand how client distributed according to their age. Is there a majority of young or old people ?

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

Move the variable « Age » in « Columns ».

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

As we want to see the distribution of client ages, we need to use the variable « Number of Records » to see the number of observations. Move the variable « Number of Record » to « Rows ».

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

Boom, we have a chart but there is only one point on the top right. What happened is that Tableau took the sum of the ages of all the bank’s clients and the sum of all the « Number of Records », it means the total number of clients, 10 000 clients.

We’ll find a solution but before we’ll change the format to better see the chart. Right-click in the middle of the chart and select « Format ».

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

For the font’s size, select « 12 ».

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

Here you can see that the total age is 39 218 but that’s not what we’re looking for. What we want to see is the number of clients for each age.

I’ll explain what’s going on. We took the aggregated sums of our variables. Aggregate means that we took the total sum of the variable for each category. We added the ages but in fact we want to see the total number of observations for each age separately.

To have that, just click on the arrow in « SUM(Age) » in « Columns ».

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

Then select « Dimensions »

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

You see, Tableau doesn’t take the aggregated sum of ages but it takes ages separately. We have a curve that shows us the continuous distribution of our clients ages. That is to say, for each age, the curve gives is the number of clients of this age.

We’ll look at the dataset. Right-click on « Churn Modelling » and select « View Data… ».

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

There is window that appears that shows us the data in detail. If you scroll to the right, you will find the column « Age ».

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

We see that the ages rounded. As all ages rounded, Tableau is able to group clients by age. By positioning the mouse on the curve, we can see that there are 200 clients who are 26 years old.

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

If in the dataset, ages weren’t rounded, you would have seen clients with 26.5 or 26.3 years. It would create a lot of irregularity, there would be plenty of spikes with lots of variations.

Oooooh look, there is a variation that isn’t normal.

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

Let’s analyze it in detail. Around this peak, we see that there are 348 clients who are 29 years old.

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

Here, 404 clients who are 31 years old.

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

And this peak down that shows us that there are 327 clients who are 30 years old.

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

How to explain this irregularity ? It’s possible that many people of 29 years old are about to turn 30 years old and many people of 31 years old who just had 31 years old. It’s chance that make us have inaccuracies. You may have other inaccuracies if you data isn’t precise and rounded. In our case, the ages are rounded but we want to get rid of our small irregularity that we see on our curve.

There is way to see our distribution without our irregularities, it’s « bins ». « Bins » consists of grouping the information into different categories. That is we’re going to regroup our clients in different age groups.

Right-click on « Age » in « Measures ». Select « Create » and select « Bins… ».

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

A window appears. We’ll group our clients in 5-years increments. In « Size of bins », write « 5 » and click on the « OK » button.

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

As you can see, the variable « Age » has remained in « Measures » but there is a new variable in « Dimensions ».This is the variable we created « Age(bins) ».

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

Our « Age(bins) » variable was correctly placed in « Dimensions » because it is a category variable because each category corresponds to a 5-year age group.

For example, one category is 20 to 24 age group. Now we’ll create a new distribution based on « bins ».

To do that, we’ll remove the variable « Age » from « Columns » with a click and drag outside.

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

You move the variable « Age(bins) » from « Dimensions » to « Columns ».

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

Note

In this case, it’s not possible to directly replace « Age » by « Age(bins) » over « Age » on « Columns ». This is because « Age » is a measure and « Age(bins) is a dimension.

That’s nice distribution, it’s usually the type of distribution (chart) we see in economics or mathematics. The difference with the old chart is that this chart is discrete. This chart is discrete because the clients grouped by age group while the previous chart was continuous.

On this distribution (chart), each bar corresponds to an age range. For example, this bar corresponds to the 25-29 age group.

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

Now, we’ll change the colors.

In « Row », move « SUM(Number of Record) » while holding down the « Ctrl » or « Command » key on your keyboard to « Colors ».

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

We get our distribution in blue but we’ll change the color to red. Click on « Colors » and click on « Edit Colors »

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

In the window that appears, click on the blue square on the right to display the color pallet.

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

Select the red color and click on the « OK » button.

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

Click on the « OK » button of the « Edit Colors » window.

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

To facilitate the reading of the bar chart, we’ll add the number of clients in each age group. In « Row », move « SUM (Number of Record) » while holding the « Ctrl » or « Command » key on your keyboard to « Label ».

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

That’s it, we can see how many clients there are in each age group.

We see that the dominant bar is the 35-39 age bracket and the second dominant bar is the 30-34 age bracket. Overall, we can see that most clients are between 25 and 40 years old, which seems consistent.

On our bar chart, we have absolute values. We’ll replace that with percentages. Click in the little arrow in « SUM(Number of Records) » in « Label » and you select « Add Table Calculation… » but I’ll show you another way to do it.

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

Instead of clicking « Add Table Calculation… », click on « Quick Table Calculation » and select « Percent of total ».

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

It’s cool, we have the exact percentage of people in each age bracket. Now, we can see that in the 25 to 40 age group, we have 20 + 23 +17= 60% of clients.

I’ll show you one last thing.You can change the size of the slices easily, just click on « Age(bins) » and select « Edit ».

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

In the windows, you can change the size of the slices (bins). Put « 10 » instead of « 5 » to get 10-years slices. Click on the « OK » button.

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

Now, we have a distibution with fewer slices and the dominant slice is 30 to 39 years old.

Well, it was just to show you how to change the size of bins. To go back to the old distribution with the 5-years slices, click on « Back » button.

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

tableau, bins, bar, chart, distribution, age, data, science

As you can see, the values on bars are in percentages but the values on the axis are in absolutes values. Here is an exercise that I ask you to do : « Put the values of the axis in percentage ». I’ll give you the answer the next article.

Share this article if you think if can help someone you know.Thank you.

-Steph

Be Really Constant

constant

I watched an Oliver Roland’s video  and I learned good stuff.

Sometimes I subscribe to a blog or a Youtube’s channel because I find the content is interesting and bring me value. But, I don’t know why, the creator of the blog or the Youtube’s channel publishes content once a month. It’s frustrating because this creator has a talent but he’s not constant.

Being constant means doing something regularly. More precisely, it’s to do something that works regularly.

What I’ve noticed with people who have a website and use social media to promote their website is that they find something that works, that attract trafic and that’s all. They do this think that works once and they’re happy.

That is not how theses people are going to be successful over the long term. When you find something that works and attract trafic to your website, you have to do it several times. You need to be an expert in this thing that works to perfect it and use it frequently

It’s not a stroke of luck

dice role playing game

For example, you do a fighting sport. During a fight, you find a technique that works. What do you think : « Wow this technique worked, but I’m going to stop using it. I will not use this technique all my life » or « Wow, this technique worked. I will use it in each fight and perfect it to win the most fight possible all my life » ?

I think you’re like me, you want to win the most fight possible all your life but we’re a lot not to do that. I reassure you, before I was like that. When I found something that worked, everybody said : « Bravo » but in my heart I felt it was a stroke of luck and I couldn’t do it again. It was a huge mistake.

There is a really cool tool to see the number of views and subscribers of some social media (Youtube, Twitch, Instagram, Twitter). If you want to do analyzes, social blade  is interesting for that.

Case study

case study

I’ll take the example of Olivier Roland’s Youtube channel. Olivier Roland have a little more than 136,000 subscribers. When he publish a video, he has around 5 %-10 % views compared to his subscribers number (6,800 views-13,600 views).

There are many Youtubers who have more subscribers than Olivier Roland. And when they publish a video, there are 50 %-100 % view compared to their subscribers number. Beware, there 50 %-100 % views weren’t only made by subscribers. Generally on Youtube there are 40 % of views that were by subscribers.

You know that there are Youtubers with more subscribers than Olivier Roland and they make more views than Olivier Roland each time they publish a video. And these Youtubers make fewer views per month than Olivier Roland. Olivier Roland has about 450,000 views – 500,000 views.

There are Youtubers who have 150,000 – 200,000 subscribers and who easily have 50,000 views – 100,000 views when they publish a video but they have 100,000 views – 200,000 views per month. When you look at the monthly figure, you see that it makes about 1/4 of the Olivier Roland’s views.

Do also research with social blade , you’ll have surprises (that is why, now, I learn data science). Why are these monthly figures low ? This is because they don’t make enough videos and they’re not constant. Making a video per month is not enough.

Making a video per month is very bad for trafficking, it’s bad for the community (audience/subscribers). It’s impossible to retain someone and it diminishes the ability to reach more people. The result is that these Youtubers have fewer view of what they might have, It’s a spoiled talent.

All make sense. When there is little content, there is less to watch, less to share and less to critize.

Be regular

regular

Because there is not enough content, the audience (the community) is frustrated and loses interest and confidence in these Youtubers.

Attention, Youtube is just an example. It’s necessary to be constant in all fields. Being constant create something strong and powerful. Olivier Roland published more than 1000 videos and he was able to do this by being constant.

Being constant to create content regularly creates options to explore new topics for the creator. This create a habit or respect to a pat of the audience. And most importantly, create content regularly, create possibilities to be known, to be shared, to be discussed and to have a better impact in the lives of people.

Quantity VS Quality

quantity quality

Do videos published per day have the same quality as weekly video ? Honestly, it’s not possible. But when you have 7 times more videos in you Youtube channel, it has tremendously more strength and values than some 4K videos.

Sometimes a 4K video can have more impact than 10,000 video in average quality, but it’s just « one shot » as won at the Lotto. And you know that the majority of people who win the Lotto are ruined a few years later.

What about you

what about you morpheus

Yeah, what about you ? I mean, what are you doing in your life that works ? Could you do this more often so that it brings more value to yourself and to the world ?

For exemple, imagine that you like to write and you write 200 words once a week to create your book. Could you increase that to 400 words or write twice a week or write 400 words twice a week ?

Another example, you do sport once a week and it really good for you. Could you increase it twice a week ?

In the comments, I would like you to answer this question : « If you put in place a plan for you to do something that works consistently and regularly, what can it bring as happiness or as value in your life ?

Share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

Connect Tableau Public To A CSV File

tableau connect file csv data science

I have just enrolled in a Data Science course on Udemy  and I learned good stuff.

After downloading the file « OfficeSupplies.csv », you will open this file with Tableau. When you open Tableau, there is a « Connect » column :

tableau connect file csv data science

Click on « Text File » and open the file « OfficeSupplies.csv » :

tableau connect file csv data science

The connection manager appears for this source file :

tableau connect file csv data science

At the top left, there is « Connect » where the file is located and below it, there is « File » with 1 file. There is 1 file because you imported 1 file. I’ll show you later how to import several files of the same type.

tableau connect file csv data science

In the center, there is a window with the files you connected. And it’s possible to connect several files.

tableau connect file csv data science

For exemple, if you do a drag and drop here, Tableau will try to connect these 2 files.

tableau connect file csv data science

You can work with data comes from several differents files, different tables from different CSV files. We’ll see that later.

At the bottom, there is a preview of the file with columns and rows. Colums « Order Date », « Region », « Rep » and « Items » identified as data in text format. Columns « Units » et « Unit Price » identified as data in number format.

tableau connect file csv data science

Now you’re gonna go on the dashboard. To access it, click here.

tableau connect file csv data science

Here is the dashboard. 

tableau connect file csv data science

We will discuss the various function in more detail in the next section.

Now, I just want to show you that we have « Data » column with our source file.

tableau connect file csv data science

If you do a right-click and click on « View Data », you see the data as in the previous window.

tableau connect file csv data science

tableau connect file csv data science

You’ve seen, it’s simple to connect a source file to Tableau.

Wait, I’ll show you how you can connect more source files. Click here to return to the connection manager where you can connect several different files.

tableau connect file csv data science

Of if you want to stay on the dashboard, you can click on the top left on « Data » then « New Data Source ».

tableau connect file csv data science

Or click on this icon on the dashboard. Here are the files types you can connect to Tableau

tableau connect file csv data science

What is interesting with the « Statistical File » is that we can connect files type SAS, SPSS and R.

tableau connect file csv data science

We have access to different server with OData and others.

tableau connect file csv data science

It’s perfect, now you can connect a data source to Tableau and you’ll see later how to connect data faster.

Share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph