Overuse Injuries

overuse injuries sport injury

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

There are 2 types of injuries : Acute injuries and overuse injuries. Acute injuries are usually caused by a single traumatic event. Here are some examples :

  • Wrist fractures

  • Ankle sprains

  • Shoulder dislocations

Acute injuries are less common in sport than overuse injuries. Overuse injuries are usually subtle and appear over time, making them difficult to diagnose and treat. Here is some example :

  • Tennis elbows

  • Swimmer’s shoulder

  • Pitcher’s elbow

  • Runner’s knee

  • Achilles tendinitis

  • Shin splints

Why

Human body is extraordinary to adapt to physical stress. We’re used of thinking that « stress » is bad for our emotional well-being, but physical stress is simply doing an exercise or activity. This is beneficial for our muscles, tendons, ligaments and bones. This physical stress causes an internal process called remodeling. Remodeling process involves both the breakdown and the build up of tissue. It’s necessary to have a good balance between 2, if breakdown occurs more rapidly than buildup, an overuse injury occurs.

Causes

overuse injuries sport injury gym fail

Usually, it’s training errors that cause overuse injuries. These errors are too fast acceleration of intensity or duration or activity frequency. These injuries can also happen to people who return to the sport/activity after an injury. They try to make up for lost time as quickly as possible to reach the level they had before the injury. Doing an exercise with a good technique is important to avoid overuse injuries. When the exercise’s technique is bad, it creates overuse injuries. It’s for this reason that coaches, athletic trainers and teachers can play a preventive role so that athletes avoid overuse injures.

There are people who more easily have overuse injuries. An unbalance between strength and flexibility around certain joints predisposes some people to have this type of injury. Body alignment, such as knock-knees, bowlegs, unequal leg lengths and flat or high arched feet, also impact overuse injuries. There are also people who have weak links because of old wounds, incomplete rehabilitation of wounds or others anatomy factors.

Other factors must also be taken into account as equipment such as the type of running shoe or ballet shoe and terrain (hard versus soft surface in aerobic dance or running).

Diagnosis

Generally the diagnosis is based on the athlete’s history and physical examination. It’s recommended to make a diagnosis with a sports medicine specialist with a specific interest and knowledge of your sport. In some situations X-rays, bone scan and MRI may be necessary.

Treatment

overuse injuries sport injury ice

Here are some recommendations for treating an overuse injuries :

  • Cutting back the intensity, duration and frequency of an activity

  • Adopting a hard/easy workout schedule and crosstraining with other activities to maintain fitness levels

  • Learning about proper training and technique from a coach or athletic trainer

  • Performing proper warm-up activities before and cool down after

  • Using ice after an activity for minor aches and pain

  • Using anti-inflammatory medications as necessary

If symptoms persist, a sport medicine specialist may create a more detailed treatment plan for your specific condition. This may involve an exam of your training program and an evaluation of predisposing factors.

Prevention

Majority of overuse injuries can be avoided with a proper training program, common sense and learning to listen your own body. The quote : « No pain, no gain » doesn’t apply here. The 10% rule helps a lot to get things to the next level.

In general, you should increase the training’s intensity to a maximum of 10% per week. This allows your body to have enough time for recovery and response. This rule should be used to increase pace or milestone for walkers or runners. Or for the weights amount to increase for strength training programs. In strength training, add flexibility exercises and core stability exercises help tremendously to minimize overuse injuries.

It’s recommended to seek advice from sports medicine specialist or athletic trainer to prevent chronic or recurring problems. Your training program can also be modified to maintain fitness levels safety while you recover from your injuries. You must return to the sport only if an authorization is granted by a health professional.

Remember, it’s very important to warm-up before training and cool down after training.

Stats

3.5 millions of children are treated for overuse injures every year.

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-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food. Click here .

Ankle Sprain

ankle sprain inversion lateral

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

A sprain is a stretch injury of the ligament that supports the ankle. This sprain often happens to the ligament outside the ankle when the foot is twisted inward (inverted). It’s a « lateral » ankle sprain that localized to the ligaments in the outer/lower part of the ankle.

A « high » ankle sprain (or syndesmosis injury) is a ligament stretch injury that holds the tibia and fibula together in the lower leg. This type of sprain happens when the ankle is twisted outward, it’s an eversion injury.

ankle sprain inversion eversion syndesmatic lateral medial high

When there is a sprain, the ankle is tender and swollen on the outside, above and at the front of the ankle bone, but the pain doesn’t come from the ankle bone. A sprain can create moderate or severe pain that can prevent the foot from supporting the body weight.

ankle sprain stretch injury grade

Treatment of sprained ankle

ankle sprain rice rest ice compression elevation

The basic treatment is what we call RICE (rest, ice, compression and elevation). During a severe sprain, it’s advisable to use a walking boot to help support the ankle.

Recovery time for a « lateral » sprain is usually 1-3 weeks and for a « high » sprain is usually 3-6 weeks.

Rehabilitation can begin a few days after the sprain when swelling decreases. The rheabilitation has 3 goals :

  1. Restore movement and flexibility

  2. Restore strength

  3. Restore balance

How to avoid a ankle sprain

It’s possible to use a brace to help prevent sprains. There are several types of neoprene or elastic materials. Here are some models on Amazon, click here .

Statistics

  • Ankle sprains are more common in all sport that involve cutting and pivoting

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-Steph

Floor Hip Abductions

foor hip abductions

I read a Frederic Delavier’s book « Strength Training Anatomy » and I learned good stuff.

Lie on your side with your head and shoulders on line :

  • Raise your leg to an angle of 70 degrees (at the most off the floor, always keeping you knee extended).

 

  • Back to the starting position

 

gluteal muscles iseertions

This exercise works gluteus medius and gluteus maximus, It’s possible to make this movement with a large amplitude or a small amplitude. You can do an isometric contraction holding the position for a few seconds at the end of abduction.

gluteal gluteus meduis maximus

You can raise your leg slightly forward or slightly backward or vertically.

foor hip abductions leg vertically backward forward

To increase the difficulty, you can use a resistance band or strap a soft weight around you ankles or use a low pulley.

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-Steph

Standing Machine Hip Abduction

standing machine hip abduction gluteus medius

I read a Frederic Delavier’s book « Strength Training Anatomy » and I learned good stuff.

Standing on the machine on one leg. The outer side of the other leg is gluted to the pad below the knee joint (close to your ankle) :

  • Raise the leg as high as possible and slowly return to the starting position by controlling the movement.

Attention

standing machine hip abduction gluteus minimus

Abduction is limited because the femur’s neck is quickly bumping on the edge of the cotyloid cavity.

This exercise works gluteus medius and gluteus maximus. For best results, it’s advisable to work with high reps.

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-Steph

Cable Hip Abductions

Cable Hip Abductions anatomy

I read a Frederic Delavier’s book « Strength Training Anatomy » and I learned good stuff.

Cable Hip Abductions

Standing on one leg. Your other leg attached a low pulley to your ankle and your opposite hand placed on the machine to stabilize your body :

  • Raise your leg as high as possible

This exercise works mainly gluteus medius and gluteus minimus placed in more depth. For a better efficiency, it’s advisable to do set with high reps until the sensation of burns.

gluteal msucles insertions anatomy

Abductions anatomy

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-Steph

Floor Hip Extensions

floor hip extensions

I read a Frederic Delavier’s book « Strength Training Anatomy » and I learned good stuff.

Kneeling on one leg and the other under the torso. You’re resting on your elbows or on your hands and your arms outstretched :

  • Tuck your opposite leg under your chest

  • Move your tucked leg to the rear until your hip is fully extended.

floor hip extension

This exercise performed :

  • Outstretched leg works hamstring and gluteus maximus

  • Flexed leg works gluteus maximus in a less intense way

floor hip extension flex knee

This movement can be worked with a large amplitude or a small amplitude in the last part of the extension. You can maintain a contraction 1-2 seconds at the end of the movement.

For more intensity, it’s possible to use soft weights your ankles. The ease of execution and effectiveness of this exercise.

This exercise is very easy to perform and gives good results. It has become very popular and is often use in aerobics classes.

floor hip extension

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-Steph

Machine Hip Extensions

machine hip extensions

I read a Frederic Delavier’s book « Strength Training Anatomy » and I learned good stuff.

The torso tilted forwards with your hands on the handles. You’re standing on one leg and the other is slightly forward with the pad placed under the knee joint at mid-distance from the ankle :

  • Inhale and move your thigh to the rear until your hip is fully extended backward (hyperextension).

  • Keep the contraction in isometry for 2 seconds and return to the starting position

  • Exhale at the end of the movement

This exercise works mainly gluteals and a little bit semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris long head.

Share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph