## Dataset For Data Mining

I have just enrolled in a Data Science course on Udemy  and I learned good stuff.

To have the dataset to do Data Mining, you need to go to the superdatascience website . In « Part.1 Visualization », you see the section « How to use Tableau for Data Mining ». Click on « Churn Modeling » to download the file.

Once you have downloaded the file, move the file to the directory you created for the course. In this directory, create a new directory (unless you already do it) named « 2.Chunk investigation ».

Open this fiel with Excel or with other spreadsheet software.

Know that we use this dataset for the visualization part but we will also use this dataset for the modeling part.

Let’s analyze the data of this dataset.

This dataset is quite large because it contains 10 000 lines and a few columns. This is the list of a bank’s client. The client information is :

• Surname (last name)

• Credit score ( is the measure that indicates the client’s ability to borrow)

• Geography (client’s country)

• Gender (male or female)

• Age

• Tenure -(the number of years the client is in the bank)

• Balance (balance of the client’s bank account)

• NumOfProduct (number of product that the client has in the bank – credit card, contract, account)

• HasCrCard (does the client have a credit card ?)

• IsActiveMember (did the client use his/her credit card during the last month ?)

• EstimatedSalary (the bank’s estimate of the client’s annual salary)

• Exited (did the client leave the bank ?)

Now, I will explain the context related to this dataset. This bank has branches in several countries like Germany, Spain and France. This bank noticed that lately there were many clients who left the bank. The bank has a report called « churn rate » which is the customers rate who leave the bank and for a few months the « churn rate » is really higher than usual. It’s for this reason that the bank needs a data scientist (you) to find the problem and propose solutions.

This dataset is a small sample of clients bank. These are 10 000 randomly selected client.

The column « Exited » is a column that didn’t exist before. This column has created when the bank realized that there was an abnormal number of client who were leaving the bank.

Then the bank observed these clients for 6 months to see which client left the bank.

In the « Exited » column, the number « 1 » means that the client left the bank and the number « 0 » means that the client stayed in the bank.

To analyze this dataset, you’ll need to do A/B Tests. For exemple, a classic A/B Test is to see if women are more likely to left the bank than men. That’s means, see the number of men who left the bank, see the number of women who left the bank and then normalize by the total number of clients. It’s important to normalize the number of clients because there are not the same proportions of women as men. Next, based on the last column « Exited », you’ll find out if it’s the men or women who are likely to left the bank.

Once you have relevant results, you can show your report to the bank. And with this report you should be able to propose solutions to the bank. For example, if the report says that women leave the bank in bulk, it’s because there is a problem and it’s necessary to see whether the bank is offering women something right. Or it’s possible that another bank offers a much more attractive offer for women or something else.

You will learn how to investigate in the dataset and find answer through client information with A/B tests.

-Steph

## Explanation Of The Challenge And Data

I have just enrolled in a Data Science course on Udemy  and I learned good stuff.

To organize myself, I created a folder « Visualization » with 3 subfolders. Each subfolder corresponds to the section of « Visualization ». I put the data set « OfficeSupplies.csv » in the 1st subfolder.

« OfficeSuplies.csv » is a CSV file. A CSV file is a text file that represents an table but the elements separated by comma.

You can open this CSV file with NotePad++  for PC or with Sublime Text  for Mac.

On the 1st line (column title), we see that we have 6 columns. Each column separated by a comma and the file contains 44 lines.

You can also open a CSV file with Excel, OpenOffice  or LibreOffice  to have a table, which is easier to read.

To open a CSV file with Excel, here are the instructions :

• Open a blank workbook

• Go to Data tab

• Click button « From Text » in the general external data section

• Follow the Text Import Wizard (in step 2, select the delimiter of your text).

This data set contains data from a store that sells office equipment :

• Order date – date of sale

• Region – The store is in 3 region (East, Central and West)

• Rep – salesperson’s first name

• Item – product’s name

• Units – product’s quantity

• Unit Price – price per unit

Each line shows how many sales there were for a product.

The challenge is to help the manager to know who made the most sales per region in the period of this data set. The period of this data set is from July 2014 to June 2015.

The person who made the most sales in each region has a bonus and there are 3 bonus so 1 bonus per region.

It’s will this challenge that we’ll use Tableau Public.

-Steph

## Install Tableau Desktop and Tableau Public

I have just enrolled in a Data Science course on Udemy  and I learned good stuff.

Today, I’ll show you how to install Tableau.

For the course that I do, there is the choice between 2 versions : Tableau Desktop and Tableau Public.

Tableau Public charged and of course, there is a trial version of 14 days. Tableau Public is free and is perfectly usable for this course because there are the same features as Tableau Desktop.

# Install Tableau Desktop

Click on the « Try Now » button on the top right

Here there are 3 options : Tableau Desktop, Tableau Online and Tableau Server. What interests us is Tableau Desktop and for that we need to give an email. Once you gave your email, the installation file downloaded automatically.

Don’t worry, the download contains the correct version of the file. This will be a « xzy.EXE » file for Windows and a « xyz.DMG » file for Mac.

If this isn’t the right version that has been downloaded, you can always do this manually with these links.

As soon as the download is complete, you can watch tutorial videos in the « Get Started » area. It’s simple and intuitive.

# Install Tableau Public

To install Tableau Public, it’s a little different because you have to go to another website. Use your web browser to go to https://public.tableau.com/s/.

Like for Tableau Desktop, you need to give an email to install the installation file automatically.

The majority of people who use Tableau Public are journalists or public organizations that do not have confidential data because Tableau Public data is on public servers. And as you know, data of a public server is freely accessible to everyone on internet.

Here the Tableau Public main graphic user interface.

Tableau Desktop and Tableau Public have the same structure, features and visualization layout.

But there are 3 differences :

• With Tableau Public, you can’t extract data because your data is on a public server.

• With Tableau Public, you need to make screenshots (printscreen) of your charts because you can’t export them.

• With Tableau Desktop, you can connect to more file type and you can export your charts.

-Steph

## The mind creates the body really ?

Remember the famous words of Arnold in his first film in 1979 ?

If you haven’t seen Pumping Iron, you have to see it immediately, no excuse.

I remember hearing him saying it and I thinking, “My mind can really create my body, what is this crap!?! “.

After years of research, I better understood what they meant. When he said that, it was for the aesthetics of the body, the sexiness. And how you want to create a sexy body ?

It can be very subjective as a definition but for most people this means increasing muscular size and losing body fat.

The question is: can we prove that this can, or at least partially, done by using the power of our minds ?

The response is overwhelming: YES

Good news, right? Now talking about the first half of the question.

Can you increase your muscle size ?

During my Taekwondo’s training, I tried several types of tricks to improve my performance. My favorite, visualization. When it came time to test our best, I sat in a corner for 1-2 minutes, I imagined beat my opponent who was stronger than me.

My coach, of course, knew this, but as I did every time before every fight, it was weird. I continued to use this technique in the gym and I’m happy to have exceeded most guys who were stronger than me before.

And you know what happens when I continue to be stronger ? My muscles increases, yeah !

Research on the subject

During the research of the University of Bishop, researchers set out to see if visualization (guys imagining themselves lifting weights) could create a similar result with someone who actually does it ( guys lifting weights for real) .

In the study, 30 guys they separate into 3 differents groups to look at the strength of the hip flexors and performance over a period of 2 weeks.

• Group A: the guys don’t do anything during 2 weeks

• Group B: the guys did 4 sets of 8 reps, 5 days per week for 2 weeks

• Group C: the guys visualize 4 sets of 8 reps, 5 days per week for 2 weeks. To clarify, this means they didn’t touch any weights, they imagine themselves become stronger.

At the end of 2 weeks, the researchers found that the Group A which has done nothing, not significantly increase strength (as expected). Group B has lifted weights has a 28% power increase and the Group C that has only visualized has a 24% power increase.

Guys who have lifted weights and those who just imagined almost won the same percentage of strenght.

What’s even crazier is that all participants of this study were athletes.

Another study from the University of Chester looked at the effect of doing physically biceps curl and 2 different types of visualizations. In the study, 50 participants were divided into 5 groups to be tested over a period of 6 weeks.

• Group A: the guys do nothing

• Group B: the guys physically did biceps curl twice a week, every weeks

• Group C: the guys visualize themselves doing bicep curl twice a week, every weeks.

• Group D: the guys are doing a type of visualization called PETTLEP Imagery, twice a week, every weeks. The PETTLEP Imagery is a visualization that incorporates a physical element, a specific task or emotional element. It’s a very intense form of visualization to make you feel that you are doing the movement.

• Group E: The guys did physically biceps curl once a week and the PETTLEP Imagery once a week, every weeks.

At the end of the study, the researchers found that participants who did nothing, had no result. Participants who did a normal visualization had a slight increase in strength. The group that did the PETTLEP Imagery and the group that just did the physical practice had the same result, and finally, the group that did the combination of imagery and physical practice had the best result.

These results tell us that visualization and physical practice create almost the same increase in strength and when you combine the two techniques, you have the best results possible.

What does that mean to you

These two studies show that we can stimulate the gains of strength and muscle with the intervention of mental visualization.

Is it possible to use it as a pre-workout ritual ? Before you start your first set, take a moment to visualize a perfect execution of the exercise and begin your workout with this mindset.

OK, but do what you can lose body fat ?

Yeah. In a study from University of Harvard that assessed the physical activity of housekeepers, researchers learned that the perception of the activity you’re doing can be as important as the activity itself.

Researchers explained to a group of housekeeper how physical activity helping to burn body fat. The other group of housekeeper has received no information.

After 4 weeks, the group that had received the information about how their jobs help burn bodyfat, they have lost about 3 lbs (1.3 kg) each. The group that had no information, they have kept the same weight.

What it means for you

Your perception of an activity may influence the amount of fat you burn. Next time you’re climbing stairs or going to a walk, instead of thinking that it is a normal routine of the day, think of it as an exercise.

If the example of the housekeepers is a bit abstract for you, look this: it’s clear that high cortisol levels are linked to increased body fat percentage but one of the best method to reduce the levels of cortisol is meditation, another form of visualization.

In a study to see the effects of meditation, researchers found that cortisol levels decreased after incorporating meditation into their daily activities.

The coolest thing about this study is that it didn’t take months or years to see cortisol levels decrease. After 4 days of meditation practice, researchers saw a significant decrease in their cortisol levels.

Setting time to meditation perhaps as important as reserving time for your workouts.

OK, you got complete information

the next time you go to the gym, trying these things simple:

• Visualize a successful exercise and perfectly executed before you physically attempt them.