I read Frederic Delavier’s book « Strength Training Anatomy » and I learned good stuff. You noticed that there are big differences in the shape of the calves, high calf, and low calf. The adaptations of the climate during the first human migrations caused these variations.
It’s common to see African black people with long legs, flat foot, and a long calcaneus. This bone structure of the leg and foot provide a powerful extension of feet to walk. It’s an excellent lever in the ankle and a short calf, thin and high with a long tendon.
It’s common to see Nordic people with short legs with a plantar arch of the foot and a short calcaneus. This bone structure of the leg and foot requires a massive and uneconomic effort to walk. It’s a long calf to help to do an extension of feet to walk.
This type of massive and long calf is actually an adaptation to cold climates to keep body heat. This prevents legs from cooling too much during the freezing cold. In the past, when a leg froze it was necessary to amputate it. These massive and long calves are aesthetic in bodybuilding competitions. Unfortunately, it’s not suitable for running and more vulnerable to muscle tears.
Long calves need a careful warm-up. It’s important to do stretching exercises before and after a calves workout.
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