Shoulder Instability Or Dislocations

shoulder instability anatomy

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

Shoulder is the most mobile joint of the body. This allows you to lift your arm, rotate your arm and lift your arm over your head. It’s possible to have a greater range of motion with less stability.

How

Shoulder instability

This happens when the humerus head (the upper arm bone) is forced out of the shoulder’s cavity. Usually this happens as a result of a sudden traumatic injury.

Once the shoulder is dislocated, the shoulder is vulnerable to repeat. When the shoulder is loose and slips several times, it’s called a chronic shoulder instability.

The shoulder is made of 3 bones : humerus (upper arm bone), scapula (shoulder blade) and clavicle (collarbone).

Dislocation shoulder

shoulder dislocation anatomy

This may be partial, which means that the arm’s ball partially comes out from the cavity. This is called a subluxation. This can be complete which means that the arm’s ball comes out completely from the cavity.

Symptoms

Symptoms of chronic shoulder instability are :

  • Pain caused by the shoulder injury

  • Repeated shoulder’s dislocation

  • Repeated instance of the shoulder giving out

  • A persistent sensation of the shoulder that is loose, slipping out of the joint or hanging.

Diagnosis

Specific tests help assess shoulder instability (including general relaxation of ligaments). A doctor may prescribe imaging tests such as X-rays, CT Scan or MRI to confirm the diagnosis and identify other problems.

Treatment

First, chronic shoulder instability treated with nonsurgical options. If these options don’t relieve pain and instability, surgery may be needed.

Nonsurgical treatment

shoulder dislocation treatment non surgical

Generally, it often takes several months of nonsurgical treatment before success can be assessed. Nonsurgical treatments includes :

  • Activity modification

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication

  • Physical therapy

Surgical treatment

shoulder dislocation treatment surgery bankart repair

Often, surgery is often required to repair torn or stretched ligaments so that they can maintain the shoulder joint in place.

Bankart lesions (tearing of the front labrum from the cavity) can be repaired surgically using suture anchors to reattach the ligaments to the bone.

Arthroscopy => Soft tissues of the shoulder can be repaired using tiny instruments and small incisions. It’s a procedure that is done the same day or outpatient. Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgery. The surgeon examines the inside of the shoulder with a small camera and performs the operation with special instruments.

Open surgery => These are patients who require open surgical intervention. This involves making a wider incision on the shoulder and performing the repair under direct visualization.

Rehabilitation

After surgery, the shoulder can be temporarily immobilized with a sling. When the sling is removed, it’s essential to do ligament rehabilitation exercises. These exercises improve the range of motion of the shoulder and avoid scarring during ligament healing. Thereafter, exercises for strengthening the shoulder will be added in the rehabilitation program.

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-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

Rotator Cuff Tears

rotator cuff tear anatomy shoulder

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

Rotator cuff is a group of 4 muscles and their tendons that together form a « cuff » around the head of the humerus (upper end of the arm). The 4 muscle, originate from the scapula (shoulder blade), are upraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis and teres minor. Tendons of each muscle fit on the humerus tuberosity.

Rotator cuff’s functions :

  • Lift the arm

  • Turn the arm

  • Stabilize the humerus in the joint

Causes

rotator cuff tear anatomy

The causes of a rotator cuff tear can be an acute injury such as a fall or because of chronic wear with tendon degeneration. For people over 40 years old, the pinching of the tendon on the underside of the scapula may participate in tearing.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of rotator cuff tears is based on an examination and/or diagnosis study such as a MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) to confirm the diagnosis. Diagnosis early on in the first symptoms and rotator cuff’s treatment can help to boost the treatment’s results.

Treatment

Goals treatment are to relieve pain and restore strength to the injured shoulder. Several tears in rotator cuff can be treated without surgery. Anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid injections and physical therapy can all be beneficial in treating the symptoms of a tear in the cuff.

Even though a full-thickness tear needs to be cured with surgery, it’s possible to use non-surgical treatments to have a satisfactory function in some cases.

Surgery

rotator cuff tear anatomy surgery

Surgery is recommended if there is persistent pain or shoulder weakness that doesn’t improve with non-surgical treatment. Often patients who have surgery indicate nocturnal pain and difficulty using the arm for lifting and reaching. Many will indicate persistent symptoms despite several months of treatment and limited use of the arm.

Surgery is also recommended for active people who use the arm for overhead work or sports.

Surgical options

The type of repair performed is based on the findings at surgery. A partial tear my necessarily only a trimming or smoothing procedure called a debridment. A full-thickness tear with the tendon torn from its insertion on the humerus is repaired directly on the bone.

3 techniques are used for rotator cuff repair :

  • Open repair (through a traditional incision)

  • Mini-open repair (partially assisted by a camera view, with a smaller incision)

  • Arthroscopic (performed with only a small camera inserted through multiple small puncture wounds)

Recovery and rehabilitation process

Whether for the treatment of non-surgical and surgical rotator cuff tear, rehabilitation has a very important role. Usually recovery is at least 6 months or more depending on the extent of the tear.

When there is a tear, there is frequently a loss of shoulder movement. An exercise or physical therapy program is needed to restore strength and improve shoulder function.

Although surgery repairs the defect of the tendon, the muscles around the arm remain weak and an important effort is necessary in the rehabilitation so that the procedure is a success. After surgery, a complete re-education can last several months.

Subscribe to my newsletter and share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

Data Science Underrated Job

data science

I have just enrolled in a Data Science course on Udemy  and I learned good stuff.

I know you’ve heard many times « Look this one, this is the job of the future ! ». The simplest thing I can do is explain why it’s interesting to learn about Data Science. This is extremely useful skills for the future.

The principle is that the more data there is, the more work there is for Data Scientists. Let’s look at the amount of data created in the world in the past, present, and estimate for the future.

130 Exabytes have been created by humans since the beginning of humanity until 2005. Ok, you didn’t understand. Don’t worry, it was the same for me. Let’s go back to the source.

Measuring data

measuring data

The source, it’s 1 byte (1B) and 1 byte is the necessary place for a hard drive to hold a letter. For example, the letter « S » = 1 byte (1B).

You go to the next level and you multiply 1 byte (1B) by 1000 which gives you 1 Kilobyte (1Kb). A book’s page contains between 2000 and 5000 letters so we can say that a half of page of text is about 1 Kilobyte (1Kb).

You go to the next level and you multiply 1 Kilobyte (1Kb) by 1000 which gives you 1 Megabyte (1Mb). A 500 pages book is about 1 Megabyte (1Mb).

You go to the next level and you multiply 1 Megabyte (1Mb) by 1000 which gives you 1 Gigabyte (Gb). A human genome (coded) can be contained in 1 Gigabyte (1Gb).

You go to the next level and you multiply 1 Gigabyte (1Gb) by 1000 which gives you 1 Terabyte (1Tb). If you take an HD camera and take a picture every day, every hour for 80 years. All videos can be contained in 1 Terabyte (1Tb).

You go to the next level and you multiply 1 Terabyte (1Tb) by 1000 which gives you 1 Petabyte (1Pb). If you take all trees of Amazonian forest to make paper and you write text on both sides each paper, all this paper represents between 1 and 2 Petabyte (1-2 Pb).

You go to the next level and you multiply 1 Petabyte (1Pb) per 1000 which gives you 1 Exabyte (1Eb). All existing data on planet Earth is contained in 1 Exabyte (1Eb).

More more more data

more data more problems

I think now you understand better how we measure the amount of data in a hard drive. At first, I told you that 130 Exabytes (130 Eb) created by humans from the beginning of humanity until 2005.

In 2010, this increased to 1200 Exabytes (1200 Eb). In 2015, this increased to 7900 Exabyte (7900 Eb). The forecast for 2020 is that this will increase up to 40 900 Exabyte (40 900 Eb).You see how data creation is growing in the world, it goes very very fast.

With a graphic, it’s easier to visualize all that.

data science forecast graph

The blue line on the graph corresponds to the quatitiy that machines (computers) can sore. You see, there is much more data than what computers can store.

The red line corresponds to what Data Scientists can process as data. You see, there is much more data than Data Scientists can process.

Another important point is that the gap between the machines and the Data Scientists will increase over time.

There are very few Data Scientits in the world and because they’re rare, they’re expensive or their salaries are high.

As companies increasingly seek ou Data Scientists, universities and engineering schools are beginning to offer this type of trainining.

The fact that the number of data increase, the companies demand to have Data Scientist to proccess data also increase. This demand is so enormous that it’s expected that in dozen years, everyone will know the Data Science’s basics as the programming now.

I advise you to do research on Data Science, you’ll see, it can be used in any industry, it’s really interesting.

Share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph