Stress Fractures

stress. fractures, tibia, fibula

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

A stress fracture is an overuse injury. Human body creates a new bone to replace a bone that has been broken due to the stress of everyday life. This process is done every day to keep the balance. Unfortunately, this balance can be disrupted because of excessive physical training. There are several factors that can prevent the body from creating enough bone and this make microcracking, called « fracture stress ».

The most common factor of fracture stress is an excessive increase in the intensitiy or frequency of physical activity without adequate rest period. Other factors are nutritional deficiencies, mechanical influences, lack of sleep, systemic factors (hormonal imbalance, etc.) and metabolic bone disorders.

There are case of development of eating disorders and/or amenorrhea (infrequent menstrual periods) for some female athletes who are preparing for a competition. These 2 conditions can create a decrease in estrogen that can decrease bone mineral density. This increase the risk of stress fractures.

Stress fractures are often seen in athletes (especially runners) or military recruiting. For an athlete, 1.6km run is 110 tons of force absorbed by the legs. Bones aren’t made to resist this force (energy) so it’s the muscles that have the function of absorbing shocks.

When the muscles get tired, they stop absorbing the forces and eveything transferred to the bones. Stress fractures occur in almost all bones but are more common in lower bone, expecially the tibia. Depending on the type of sport, there’re distinctive stress fractures such as the elbow in throwing sports, the ribs in golfing and rowing, the spine in gymnastics, the lower extremity in running activities and the foot in gymnastics and bascketball.

Diagnosis

stress, fracture, foot, metatarsal, 5th
stress, fracture, foot, x-rays, metatarsal,2nd

Stress fractures create pain in a limited area directly above the tip of the bone where the fracture occurred. The pain is raw because of physical activity and relived with rest. The sensitivity of the bones is the most obvious conclusion to the physical examination.

With regard to X-rays, this isn’t a tool that actually helps to diagnose an early stress fracture because the bone often looks normal and the microcracking aren’t visible. It’s difficult because after several weeks of rest, the bone begins to repair itself and shows a healing reaction or callus on X-rays.

An early stress fracture is usually confirmed by a bone scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Treatment

Stress fractures are generally classified as low-risk (will not become a serious fracture) or high-risk (will become a serious fracture).

Low-risk stress fractures usually require a rest period of 1-6 weeks of limited weight bearing activity progressing to full weight bearing may be necessary. Return to physical activity should be a gratual process.

Low impact activities like swimming or biking are recommended to maintain cardiovascular condition when the pain is gone. When the patient can comfortably perform low impact activities for long, pain-free periods, the patient can begin high-impact activities.

High-risk stress fracture have the danger of becoming a complete fracture. For athletes suffering from chronic pain and having normal x-rays results, it’s recommanded to use a bone scan or MRI. High-risk stress fractures should be treated as traumatic fractures (with cast or surgery) because of complications.

Prevent

food, vitamin,d, carrot, papay, meat, ,egg, chees, broccoli, fish, sweet, potato, mango, pepperoni, apricot, peach, melon, avocado
calcium, food, almond, amarant, grain, aparagus, apricot, artichoke, baked, bean, haricot, blackberry, blackstrap, molasse, blackcurrant, bok, choy, brazil, nut, bread, wholemeal, brocolly, chickpeas, cinnamon, edamame, soya, fennel, kale, kidney, olive, orange, sesame, seed, milk, spring, green, tofu, swede, walnut, watercress

Here are tips developed by AAOS to help to prevent stress fractures :

  • When an athete does a new sport activity, it’s necessary to program progressive goals. For example on the 1st day, don’t run 8km but rather increase the distance gradually per week.
  • Cross-training => Alternate activities to achieve the same fitness goal helps to avoid stress fracture injuries. For example to achieve a cardiovascular goal, alternate cycling and running (cycling one day and riding the other day) is excellent. Adding strength training and doing flexibility exercises help improve performance.
  • Have and maintain a heathy diet with foods rich in calcium and vitamin D.
  • Use good equipment. Don’t use running shoes, gloves, etc, very old and very worn.
  • If during physical activity it start to swell or the pain starts, stop the activity right away. It’s essential to rest for a few days. If the pain continue, you should see an orthopedic surgeon.
  • It’s important to recognize early symptoms and treat them appropriately to return to the sport with a normal level of play.

Stats

  • Stress fractures occur less frequently in those of black African descent than in Caucasians, due to a generally higher BMD (bone mineral densitiy) in the former.
  • Women and highly active individuals are also at a higher risk, The incidence probably also increases with age due to age-related reductions in BMD.
  • Children may also be at risk because their bones have yet to reach full density and strength.
  • The female athlete triad also can put women at risk, as disordered eating and osteoporosis can cause the bones to be severely weakened.

Subscribe to my newsletter and share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

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Cholesterol Demon Or Not

cholesterol angel demon

I read a Nerd Fitness article  and there is good stuff.

  • You have already heard you should avoid eating foods with cholesterol because they can clog your arteries. Only white egg, no egg yokes !

  • You have already heard if you want stay healthy you should reduce your cholesterol’s consumption. Margarine, no butter.

  • You have already heard you should reduce your meat’s consumption because meat has cholesterol. Meat can kill you !

If you’re like me, you heard all these arguments about cholesterol. 99 % of doctors advise us to reduce our cholesterol’s consumption when our cholesterol rate increase. All medias advice us to avoid cholesterol. Of course, we believe it.

In a PDF of nutrition for athletes, I discovered egg yolk benefits. After read this, I ask myself why everybody say cholesterol is bad ?

Attention I’m not a doctor or dietician, I did some research because I like to analyze (I’m a software writer) and I explain what I found. Use this article to discuss with your doctor about your diet. It will make me happy.

Cholesterol

cholesterol

Cholesterol is an organic lipid (fat) that exist in all animals and it is there to execute body functions. Cholesterol is produced naturally by the body and have a important part to keep us in alive. It is in each cells of our body.

A Harvard’s article  explains the 3 cholesterol’s mainly functions :

  • It helps make the outer coating of cells.

  • It makes up the bile acids that work to digest food in the intestine.

  • It allows the body to make Vitamin D and hormones (like estrogen in women and testosterone in men)

Seriously, these functions are really important ! Now to be sure than our body has enough cholesterol to manage all these functions, our liver create a lot of cholesterol each day.

Cholesterol is so important that our body produce more than 1000mg of cholesterol per day.

Now if our body produce a lot of cholesterol, what’s happen with the cholesterol we eat ? Add more cholesterol in our body can be bad ?

Not exactly, look these sentences of PubMed abstract   :

« Dietary cholesterol content does not significantly influence plasma cholesterol values, which are regulated by different genetic and nutritional factors that influence cholesterol absorption or synthesis ».

Translation : Cholesterol from food is poorly absorb by our body and rapidly excreted. It means that the amount of cholesterol you eat is very low than the amount of cholesterol in your blood stream.

And our liver regulate the level of cholesterol in the blood stream by increase or decrease cholesterol production.

Cholesterol angel or demon

cholesterol heart disease clog arteries

There is 3 type of lipoprotein associated with cholesterol. Usually your doctor talk about 2 types when you see him/her :

  • High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) : They’re billowy transporters that take cholesterol from your blood stream to deliver to your liver. Our liver use cholesterol to make bile. The majority of doctors say it’s good to have a lot of HDL. HDL is a good thing.

  • Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) : They’re also transporters. They take cholesterol from your liver and deliver cells. The majority of doctors say it’s good to have few. They’re bad cholesterol even if it’s more complex that that.

  • Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) : They were discovered recently. They have a lower density of lipoprotein than the LDL. The majority of doctors say it’s a priority to reduce the VLDL in our blood.

We just see that cholesterol is very important for body functions, we need it to survive. All cholesterol are not create equal but most of them are good and important !

Doctor

doctor

The story of hat for cholesterol is long and shitty. The medical community in the quest to minimize heart diseases had desperately need a scapegoat.

Long time ago, doctors discovered than cholesterol was one thing who clogged arteries. So they said that cholesterol was the cause and food with cholesterol should be avoid.

There is an example with Marks Daily Apple  :

« Tests in the fifties initially showed an association between early death by heart disease and fat deposits and lesions along artery walls. Because cholesterol was found to be present in those deposits (of course it would!) and because researchers had previously associated familial hypercholesterolaemia (hereditary high blood cholesterol) with heart disease, they concluded that cholesterol must be the culprit ».

So cholesterol is bad, case closed ! Unfortunately mommies are not agree with these doctors.

Go in the past in era of Tutankhamun and Cleopatra. In Ancient Egypt, they had same problems that we have today : heart disease and hardened arteries   !

It’s funny because some articles like this one  say that the only way for Egyptians to have a high cholesterol rate and clogged arteries is that they had a « fatty diet ».

Egyptians had a « fatty diet » ? They didn’t have fast-foods or supermarkets. Egyptians had a vegetarian diet . The cholesterol hypothesis is invalid !

Well, we’re beginning to see that the cholesterol is very more complex that we thought. Mmmmmh !

Conclusion

educate yourself

Cholesterol is not the root of the problem but just a risk factor among others. Take care about your cholesterol like you check your car’s oil level.

Cholesterol is a complex subject. Take a pill rather than change the lifestyle is not a solution. Before to decrease your consumption of cholesterol advised by your doctor, I encourage you to do your own research and have a conversation with your doctor to talk about these points and ask if change the lifestyle is a option.

Educate yourself rather than blindly follow someone’s advice even my advice. Question everything.

Do you have stories to share about improving health with a change in lifestyle or diet ?

 

-Steph

P.S : Do you want a free training program ? Click here 

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How To Build An Ideal Female Body (Part 2)

 ideal woman body

D) More is less? Or Less Is More? Oh, Go Faster

rest

There are several factors to modify a workout, the most common are workout frequency, sets, reps, volume of work and weight. But there is a variable we don’t hear about.

I mean the training density. The density can be described as the total of work you do in a specific period, do more in less time.

Do more work in less time has many benefits: increase % of lost fat, increase strength and more toned skin.

The easiest way to increase density is to reduce rest periods. If normally you take 45 seconds of rest between your sets, you reduced to 35 or less.

Another way to increase density is based on TIME rather than REPS. If you make lateral raise, you make the most of reps as you can for 30 seconds. And in the next set, you try to beat your record. Increase speed but keeps a good exercice’s form.

You will become firmer, sexier and leaner, faster

E) Focus On Your Assets

squat butt

Oooops, I like when girls have a beautiful butt, well-formed, athletic butt. I’m honest and as I write an article to help women to have a sexy body, well, for me nothing is sexier than a beautiful backside. So let’s talk about the butt or rather train the butt.

You already know the 2 best exercises for your glutes: squat and lunge. Now I’ll tell you how to do them more efficiently.

When you squat, put the position of your feet the widest possible as a sumo. This work more on the glutes.

For lunges, GO BACK, no forward.

Lunges forward putting more pressure, more stress on quadriceps at the base of the knee (the vastus medialus), it’s rather an eccentric pressure. Look, when you do a lunge, your leg “take” the weight of your entire body and stop/absorbs a while. By this way the knee muscles do the majority of the work.

But, when you do lunge backwards, your glutes are working more and the section of quadriceps along the femur (rectus femoris) work better.

With that, you’ll develop strong and powerful legs without being “disturbed” to have too big quadriceps.

F) Being A Venus

be a venus

To have a physique that is attractive to the opposite sex, it’s important to understand certain dimension of the body that are visually important.

Our ancestors unconsciously validated desirable traits such as maternity, productivity and fertility corresponding to physical attributes. Some physical traits are what we call mating qualifiers, which means that from an evolutionary point of view, these traits are attractive to members of the opposite sex because of what they imply.

A man with broad shoulders projects an image of strength in our subconscious, a woman with a narrow waist and shapely hips projects the image of a woman who built her body in a way that implies fertility.

For example, the standard today is Marilyn Monroe and it can be compared to the beauty of the modern female celebrities.

The reason is the Golden Ratio is based on the comparison: hips-shoulders and the comparison: hips-waist. With women, we want athletic shoulders, a small waist and BOOM sexy hips.

Marilyn had a “perfect” ratio : 36-24-36, our current standard are more flexible 34.5-23-34.5. The common point with these figures is the ratio of the waist, hips and shoulders (ratio => 1: 1.5).

This means, focus to build strong and sexy shoulders with push press and lateral raise. Don’t worry to make a smaller butt, do multi-joint movement. It will improve its shape.

Now that you have these 6 tips to be sexy, be sexy !

-Steph

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