SLAP Tears

slap tear anatomy shoulder

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

SLAP is an acronym for superior labrum anterior to posterior. The labrum is a rim of tissue that adds depth to the bony socket of the shoulder. The superior or « top » portion or the labrum is important and frequently injured because the biceps attaches to this region.

How

SLAP tears happens because of physical activity with repetitive overhead movements or physical shock. Tears created because of overhead movements are common among athletes as basball pitchers or tennis players. Tears created due to physical shocks are often a fall on a hand stretched with the arm over the head or fall directly on the shoulder.

Diagnosis

slap tear anatomy shoulder

SLAP tears are very difficult to diagnose only with a physical exam because of different shoulder problems. Using a MRI with or without contrast helps a lot.

Treatment

The first step is to do a nonsurgical treatment. While the SLAP tear likely will not heal, a study confirmed that many have improvement of symptoms and function. If nonsurgical treatment (such as physical therapy) isn’t successful, surgery is being considered.

Surgery is usually done arthroscopically and involves reattaching the torn labrum to the top of the cavity. Generally, bone anchors loaded with sutures are inserted into the top of the cavity. The sutures are passed through the torn area of the labrum. The sutures are tied, which brings the torn labrum to the bone.

Prevention

Although it’s difficult to avoir acute SLAP tears, it’s possible to prevent chronic tears, especially with athletes who make overhead movements, maintaining balance in the shoulder.

Exercices that strengthen the muscles around the shoulder blades and exercises that stretch posterior shoulders are recommended to reduce the risk of SLAP chronic tears.

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-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

Overuse Injuries

overuse injuries sport injury

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

There are 2 types of injuries : Acute injuries and overuse injuries. Acute injuries are usually caused by a single traumatic event. Here are some examples :

  • Wrist fractures

  • Ankle sprains

  • Shoulder dislocations

Acute injuries are less common in sport than overuse injuries. Overuse injuries are usually subtle and appear over time, making them difficult to diagnose and treat. Here is some example :

  • Tennis elbows

  • Swimmer’s shoulder

  • Pitcher’s elbow

  • Runner’s knee

  • Achilles tendinitis

  • Shin splints

Why

Human body is extraordinary to adapt to physical stress. We’re used of thinking that « stress » is bad for our emotional well-being, but physical stress is simply doing an exercise or activity. This is beneficial for our muscles, tendons, ligaments and bones. This physical stress causes an internal process called remodeling. Remodeling process involves both the breakdown and the build up of tissue. It’s necessary to have a good balance between 2, if breakdown occurs more rapidly than buildup, an overuse injury occurs.

Causes

overuse injuries sport injury gym fail

Usually, it’s training errors that cause overuse injuries. These errors are too fast acceleration of intensity or duration or activity frequency. These injuries can also happen to people who return to the sport/activity after an injury. They try to make up for lost time as quickly as possible to reach the level they had before the injury. Doing an exercise with a good technique is important to avoid overuse injuries. When the exercise’s technique is bad, it creates overuse injuries. It’s for this reason that coaches, athletic trainers and teachers can play a preventive role so that athletes avoid overuse injures.

There are people who more easily have overuse injuries. An unbalance between strength and flexibility around certain joints predisposes some people to have this type of injury. Body alignment, such as knock-knees, bowlegs, unequal leg lengths and flat or high arched feet, also impact overuse injuries. There are also people who have weak links because of old wounds, incomplete rehabilitation of wounds or others anatomy factors.

Other factors must also be taken into account as equipment such as the type of running shoe or ballet shoe and terrain (hard versus soft surface in aerobic dance or running).

Diagnosis

Generally the diagnosis is based on the athlete’s history and physical examination. It’s recommended to make a diagnosis with a sports medicine specialist with a specific interest and knowledge of your sport. In some situations X-rays, bone scan and MRI may be necessary.

Treatment

overuse injuries sport injury ice

Here are some recommendations for treating an overuse injuries :

  • Cutting back the intensity, duration and frequency of an activity

  • Adopting a hard/easy workout schedule and crosstraining with other activities to maintain fitness levels

  • Learning about proper training and technique from a coach or athletic trainer

  • Performing proper warm-up activities before and cool down after

  • Using ice after an activity for minor aches and pain

  • Using anti-inflammatory medications as necessary

If symptoms persist, a sport medicine specialist may create a more detailed treatment plan for your specific condition. This may involve an exam of your training program and an evaluation of predisposing factors.

Prevention

Majority of overuse injuries can be avoided with a proper training program, common sense and learning to listen your own body. The quote : « No pain, no gain » doesn’t apply here. The 10% rule helps a lot to get things to the next level.

In general, you should increase the training’s intensity to a maximum of 10% per week. This allows your body to have enough time for recovery and response. This rule should be used to increase pace or milestone for walkers or runners. Or for the weights amount to increase for strength training programs. In strength training, add flexibility exercises and core stability exercises help tremendously to minimize overuse injuries.

It’s recommended to seek advice from sports medicine specialist or athletic trainer to prevent chronic or recurring problems. Your training program can also be modified to maintain fitness levels safety while you recover from your injuries. You must return to the sport only if an authorization is granted by a health professional.

Remember, it’s very important to warm-up before training and cool down after training.

Stats

3.5 millions of children are treated for overuse injures every year.

Subscribe to my newsletter and share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food. Click here .

Meniscal Tears

meniscus

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

Meniscus tear

meniscus tear

Meniscal tear is one of the most common knee injuries in athletes. This is caused after a contact injury or a traumatic twist. The meniscus is a wedge-shaped cartilage that provides a cushion in the medial and lateral portion of the knee joint and acts as a « shock absorber ». It’s located in the area of joints contact to prevent the bones rub between them because of the bodyweight. It’s hard and rubbery to help cushion the joints and keep the knees stable.

It’s important to also know that the meniscus helps to nourish the knee by facilitating the diffusion of joint fluid. With this injury, athletes can experience acute pain with a swelling and often a catching or locking sensation.

Diagnose

A meniscus injury can be diagnosed on the basis of the story that the patient provides and a physical examination of the knee.

An orthopedic surgeon my also use other techniques to further diagnose such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which gives a 3-dimensional image of the inside of the knee joint. In some cases, a surgeon can perform an arthroscopic inspection of the articulation, this is a minimally invasive surgical procedure.

Treatment

knee brace

A small meniscus tear can be treated with rest, ice and anti-inflammatory medications. When a meniscus tear causes a significant loss of movement or catching, the appropriate treatment is often a surgical operation. Depending on the location and type of tear, the treatment may be a simple arthroscopy to remove the torn fragment. Depending on how quickly the inflammation disappears, athletes can return to a full activity after a week or months.

For athletes with a repairable tear, sutures are used to sew the meniscus. In this situation, the knee is braced for 6 weeks. These athletes take at least 3-6 months to back to their activities but maintain the full cushion in their knees.

Prevention

There is not really any way to prevent a meniscus tear apart from a conditioning program to try to prevent an acromioclavicular ligament (ACL) tear and knee instability.

Stats

Women have meniscus tears more often than men and at an earlier age. These tears are often associated with an acromioclavicular ligament injury (ACL)

There are some variables of meniscus tears can be repaired and despite repair, they aren’t always heal. But arthritis can be avoided in the majority of cases when repair is successful. One study shows that 60% of patients who undergo meniscectomy (partial elimination) had some degree of progressive arthritis.

Subscribe to my newsletter and share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

Fitness History – United States – The 1960 (Part 13)

united states 1960

President John F. Kennedy was a major supporter of fitness and health-related benefits to United States citizens. He continued the Presidential Council for Fitness Club Youth naming Bud Wilkinson as head of the council. The name was also changed to the Presidential Council on Physical Condition. Kennedy spoke openly about the need for the United States citizens to improve their fitness levels including with writing an article in « Sports Illustrated » magazine titled « The Soft American ». He said: « We are under-exercised as a nation ; we look instead of playing ; we ride instead of walking ». Kennedy has prompted the federal government to be more involved in the promotion in national fitness and launched fitness pilot programs for children. Kennedy’s commitment to fitness can be summarized in one sentence that said : « Physical fitness is the basis of all other forms of excellence ».

Dr. Ken H. Cooper, widely recognized as the « Father of the modern fitness movement » is generally known to encourage more people to train as any other individual in history. Cooper advocated a philosophy that has abandoned the treatment of disease by preventing the disease. « It is easier to maintain good health through exercise, diet and emotional balance than to regain once it is lost », he said. Early in his career, Cooper stressed the need for epidemiological data to support the benefits of regular exercise and health. Data from thousands of individuals have become the foundation for his aerobics concept. Aerobics released in 1968 sent a powerful message to United States citizens – to prevent the development of chronic diseases, we must do regular exercise and maintain a high fitness level throughout life. The message, programs and ideas of Dr. Cooper created the template from which the fitness proliferated until modern times.

The Lessons of History

history

The history of fitness depicts fascinating themes that are closely related in the 21st century. A common feature is the strong association of military power and politics with fitness throughout the progress of humanity. In many ways, this shows the impact of our world leaders can have on health and fitness.

The mind-body concept has had a precarious development. Sometimes some cultures prescribe spirituality at the expense of the body, while others, such as the Greek society, confirmed the idea that a healthy mind can only be in a healthy body.

Another interesting development from history is the concept of the exercise for the body and music for the soul. Fitness programs today have developed this concept harmoniously, music has became a distinctive element to the exercice experience.

It seems that societies become too enamored of wealth, prosperity and self-entertainment so that fitness levels drop. Also as technology progressed with humans, fitness levels declined. So, this is a resolution with which we are challenging societies today: Maybe using all the extensive research on the health and fitness combined with the creative minds of the fitness industry today, we can now solve this part of the fitness puzzle.

This is the end of our journey through time. Personally I learned a lot and I see fitness differently (it changes Photoshop’s delirium). I hope it was the same for you.

-Steph

Histoire Du Fitness – Etats-Unis – Les années 1960 (Part 13)

united states 1960

Le président John F. Kennedy était un un partisan majeur du fitness et de ses avantages lié à la santé pour les citoyens des Etats-Unis. Il poursuivit le Conseil Présidentiel de la Remise En Forme de la Jeunesse en nommant Bud Wilkinson en tant que chef du conseil. Le nom a également été changé pour le Conseil Présidentiel sur la Condition Physique. Kennedy a parlé ouvertement de la nécessité pour les citoyens des Etat-Unis d’améliorer leurs niveaux de condition physique y compris avec la rédaction d’un article écrit dans le magazine « Sport Illustrated » titré « l’américain faible ». Il a dit : « Nous sommes sous-exercé en tant que nation, nous regardons le sport à la place de le faire, nous utilisons un véhicule au lieu de marcher ». Kennedy a incité le gouvernement fédéral à s’impliquer davantage dans la promotion de la remise en forme nationale et a lancé des programmes pilotes de conditionnement physique pour les enfants. L’engagement de Kennedy pour le fitness peut être résumé par une phrase qu’il a dit : « La forme physique est la base de toutes autres formes d’excellence ».

Dr. Ken H. Cooper, largement reconnu comme le « Père du mouvement du fitness moderne », est généralement connu pour encourager davantage de personnes à s’exercer que n’importe quelle autres individu dans l’histoire. Cooper a préconisé une philosophie qui a délaissé le traitement de la maladie par la prévention de la maladie. « Il est plus facile de maintenir une bonne santé grâce à l’exercice, le régime alimentaire et l’équilibre émotionnel que de la retrouver une fois qu’elle est perdu », il a dit. Tôt dans sa carrière, Cooper a souligné la nécessité de fournir des données épidémiologiques pour soutenir les avantages des exercices réguliers et de la santé. Les données provenant de milliers d’individus sont devenu la fondation pour son concept aérobic. L’aérobic sorti en 1968 a envoyé un puissant message aux citoyens des Etats-Unis – pour empêcher le développement de maladies chroniques, il faut faire des exercices réguliers et maintenir un haut niveau de condition physique tout au long de la vie. Le message, les programmes et les idées du Dr. Cooper ont créé le modèle à partir duquel le fitness à proliféré jusqu’à l’époque moderne.

Les Leçons de l’Histoire

history

L’histoire du fitness dépeint des thèmes fascinants qui sont étroitement liées au 21e siècle. Un point commun est la forte association de la puissance militaire et la politique avec la condition physique tout au long de l’avancement de l’humanité. De plusieurs façons, cela montre l’impact que nos leaders mondiaux peuvent avoir sur la santé et le fitness.

Le concept esprit-corps a eu un développement précaire. Parfois certaines cultures prescrivent la spiritualité au détriment du corps alors que d’autres, tels que la société grecque, a confirmé l’idée qu’un esprit sain peut seulement être dans un corps sain.

Un autre développement intéressant de l’histoire est le concept de l’exercice pour le corps et de la musique pour l’âme. Les programmes de conditionnement physique de nos jours ont fait évoluer ce concept harmonieusement, la musique est devenu un élément distinctif pour l’expérience de l’exercice.

Il semble que les sociétés deviennent trop épris de la richesse, la prospérité et l’auto-divertissement ce qui fait que les niveaux de conditionnement physique baissent. En outre comme la technologie a progressé avec l’homme , les niveaux de condition physique ont diminué. Ainsi, ceci est une résolution avec lequel nous mettons aux défis les sociétés aujourd’hui :Peut-être en utilisant toutes les recherches approfondies sur la santé et le fitness en combinaison avec les esprits créatifs de l’industrie du fitness d’aujourd’hui, nous pouvons maintenant résoudre cette partie du puzzle du fitness.

C’est la fin de notre voyage dans le temps. Personnellement j’ai appris beaucoup de choses et je vois le fitness différemment (ça change du délire Photoshop). J’espère que cela a été pareil pour toi.

-Steph