SLAP Tears

slap tear anatomy shoulder

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

SLAP is an acronym for superior labrum anterior to posterior. The labrum is a rim of tissue that adds depth to the bony socket of the shoulder. The superior or « top » portion or the labrum is important and frequently injured because the biceps attaches to this region.

How

SLAP tears happens because of physical activity with repetitive overhead movements or physical shock. Tears created because of overhead movements are common among athletes as basball pitchers or tennis players. Tears created due to physical shocks are often a fall on a hand stretched with the arm over the head or fall directly on the shoulder.

Diagnosis

slap tear anatomy shoulder

SLAP tears are very difficult to diagnose only with a physical exam because of different shoulder problems. Using a MRI with or without contrast helps a lot.

Treatment

The first step is to do a nonsurgical treatment. While the SLAP tear likely will not heal, a study confirmed that many have improvement of symptoms and function. If nonsurgical treatment (such as physical therapy) isn’t successful, surgery is being considered.

Surgery is usually done arthroscopically and involves reattaching the torn labrum to the top of the cavity. Generally, bone anchors loaded with sutures are inserted into the top of the cavity. The sutures are passed through the torn area of the labrum. The sutures are tied, which brings the torn labrum to the bone.

Prevention

Although it’s difficult to avoir acute SLAP tears, it’s possible to prevent chronic tears, especially with athletes who make overhead movements, maintaining balance in the shoulder.

Exercices that strengthen the muscles around the shoulder blades and exercises that stretch posterior shoulders are recommended to reduce the risk of SLAP chronic tears.

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-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

Ankle Sprain

ankle sprain inversion lateral

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

A sprain is a stretch injury of the ligament that supports the ankle. This sprain often happens to the ligament outside the ankle when the foot is twisted inward (inverted). It’s a « lateral » ankle sprain that localized to the ligaments in the outer/lower part of the ankle.

A « high » ankle sprain (or syndesmosis injury) is a ligament stretch injury that holds the tibia and fibula together in the lower leg. This type of sprain happens when the ankle is twisted outward, it’s an eversion injury.

ankle sprain inversion eversion syndesmatic lateral medial high

When there is a sprain, the ankle is tender and swollen on the outside, above and at the front of the ankle bone, but the pain doesn’t come from the ankle bone. A sprain can create moderate or severe pain that can prevent the foot from supporting the body weight.

ankle sprain stretch injury grade

Treatment of sprained ankle

ankle sprain rice rest ice compression elevation

The basic treatment is what we call RICE (rest, ice, compression and elevation). During a severe sprain, it’s advisable to use a walking boot to help support the ankle.

Recovery time for a « lateral » sprain is usually 1-3 weeks and for a « high » sprain is usually 3-6 weeks.

Rehabilitation can begin a few days after the sprain when swelling decreases. The rheabilitation has 3 goals :

  1. Restore movement and flexibility

  2. Restore strength

  3. Restore balance

How to avoid a ankle sprain

It’s possible to use a brace to help prevent sprains. There are several types of neoprene or elastic materials. Here are some models on Amazon, click here .

Statistics

  • Ankle sprains are more common in all sport that involve cutting and pivoting

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-Steph

Standing Calf Raise Machine

standing calf raise machine

I read a Frederic Delavier’s book « Strength Training Anatomy » and I learned good stuff.

Stand with your back straight and your shoulders under the pads. The front of your feet on the step with your ankles in passive flexion :

  • Do an extension of your feet with of your knees joints in extension.

This exercise works the triceps surae composed of 2 gastrocnemius and soleus. It’s really important to do each repetition with a full flexion to really stretch the muscles.

muscle triceps surae

insertions muscle triceps surae

In theory, it’s possible to locate the work on gastrocnemius medial (toes outward) or gastrocnemius lateral (toes inward) but, in reality it’s very difficult. However, you can easily shift the emphasis from the gastronemius to the soleus by flexing your knees to relax the gastrocnemius.

gastrocnemius medial lateral

Variant

standing barbell calf raise

It’s possible to do this movement with the Smith machine and a step under your feet.

Note

Triceps surae is a very powerful muscle that is used to lifting your bodyweight all day. It’s for this reason why it’s important to use heavyweights to work it.

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-Steph

Low Back Pain

 low back pain

I read a Frederic Delavier’s book « Strength Training Anatomy » and I learned good stuff.


Audio file :

The most common painful affection of lumbar region is low back pain.

Usually it’s not serious because it’s often due to the cramps to the small paraspinal deep muscles of the back that connect mainly the bony processes of the vertebrae between them.

This happens during an uncontrolled extension or rotation of the spine. When one of these small muscles has an excessive tear or stretch, it contracts right away. The results is that all small neighboring muscles and erector muscles contracting. The back blocks itself and there is a pain but this blocking of the back allows to limit the movements that can aggravate the tear of the small paravertebral deep muscle.

low back pain

This general contraction of the lower back lasts a certain time and disappears most often with the healing of the small paravertebral muscle’s tear. But it’s possible that some people after healing have these contractures localized for several weeks or years.

Note

These back muscles contractures which are generally not severe may accompany more severe vertebral pathologies such as fractures, ligament tears, muscle tear or herniated disc.

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-Steph

Pec Deck Flys

pec deck flys

I read a Frederic Delavier’s book « Strength Training Anatomy » and I learned good stuff.

Sitting on the machine with your arms spread horizontally. Your elbows are bent on the pads with your forearms and wrist released :

  • Inhale and tighten your arms to the maximum

  • Exhale at the end of the movement

This exercise works the pectoralis major by stretching it and a little bit coraco-brachialis and biceps short head. When the elbows brought together, the effort is in the sternal part of the pectoralis major.

With high reps, you can have intense pump.

This exercise is excellent for beginners to build strength to then do more complex exercises.

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-Steph

Incline Dumbbell Press

incline dumbbell press

I read a Frederic Delavier’s book « Strength Training Anatomy » and I learned good stuff.

Sitting on an inclined bench (no more than 60° because you don’t want to work only your deltoids) with your elbows bent. You have a dumbbell in each hand with a pronated grip.

  • Inhale and extend your arms vertically by bringing the dumbbells closer together

  • Exhale at the end of the movement.

This exercise mainly works the upper part of pectoralis major (upper chest) and a little bit anterior deltoid, seratus anterior and pectoralis minor. Seratus anterior and pectoralis minor stabilize the scapulae, allowing the arm to work with the torso. Triceps work less intensely that with barbell.

This exercise is between incline barbell press and dumbbell flys. It’s a movement which works the upper part of the pectoralis major and it also stretches the muscle because of the amplitude of the movement.

Variant

You can have a starting position with a pronated grip and when you extend your arms, you rotate so that your palms of your hands are face to face (neutral position).

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-Steph

Dumbbell Flys

dumbbell flys

I read a Frederic Delavier’s book « Strength Training Anatomy » and I learned good stuff.

Lying on a bench with dumbbell in pronated grip and your arms slightly flexed :

  • Inhale and spread your arms to the horizonzal

  • Lift your arms to the vertical while exhale

  • Squeeze your chest at the end fo the movement to work the sternal part of the pectoralis major.

Does this exercise with light weights.

This exercise works pectoralis major and it’s a good exercise to increase chest expansion to increase lung capacity.

it’s also an excellent movement to stretch your pectoralis major.

Attention

To avoid pectoralis major tears, it’s necessary to do this exercise with extreme caution when the weights are heavy.

Share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph