What Words To Know In The Fitness (Part 1)

book definition pens pencils

This part of what words to know in the fitness is about physiology to know the mechanisms of living creatures. If you’re curious about why I’m doing it, click here. The definitions come from, or a mix from these three dictionaries:

Several dictionaries can help to better understand a word.

Matter

  1. The matter is a material object.
  2. In the field of science, physics, the matter is an element that occupies space and the force can move it.

Energy

  1. Energy is the force that comes from sources such as food, fuel, electricity or other. It allows to do a task or produce a movement.
  2. Energy is the intellectual or physical power of an individual to do a work

Organism

The organism is a living creature like a plant, animal or human being

Cell

Cell the main denomination of all living creatures.

It exists living things with only one cell. The human being has more than 37 trillions of cells.

Cells born, multiply, create energy, transfer information and die.

Tissue

The tissue is a set of cells in living creatures. This creates a type of physical structure with defined behavior.

Organ

An organ is a set of tissues. All tissues combined have the function of performing a task in an organism such as the lungs, skin or heart.

Beware, skeletal muscle has only one type of tissue, so it is not considered an organ.

Muscle

Muscle is a type of tissue. It is usually connected to the bones and contracts and relaxes to create a movement.

Muscle fiber

A muscle fiber has several names as a muscle cell or myocyte. It is a group of long filiform strands named contracted myofibrils.

Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle is muscle tissue. It linked to the skeleton to help the body move the limbs and other body parts.

Chemistry

Chemistry is a scientific field. It studies the composition, the properties and the reaction of matter.

Chemical

  1. Chemistry is the act of interacting materials studied in chemistry.
  2. A chemical is a material that can have a chemical process or change.

There exist natural and man-made chemicals

Element

An element (chemical element) is a material that it’s not possible to decompose into little parts.

More than 100 are the main components of matter.

Gram

One gram is a metric unit of weight. One pound is about 454 grams.

Kilogram

One kilogram is a metric unit of weight. 1,000 grams is about 2.2 pounds.

Celsius

Celsius is a scale of temperature on which water freezes at 0 degrees and boils at 100 degrees.

Fahrenheit is a scale of temperature on which water freezes at 32 degrees and boils at 212 degrees. The United States uses Fahrenheit.

Calorie

A calorie is energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius.

Calories are also called kilocalories (1000 calories). Kilocalories are convenient for measuring the energy value of foods.

Compound

A compound is a material composed of two or more diverse components.

Molecule

A molecule is the smallest particle of a component in a material.

If you break it down, it becomes the element that created the molecule.

Acid

An acid is a chemical material that reacts with another material. It can also dissolve certain elements.

Amino acid

An amino acid is a natural item in proteins

Essential amino acid

An essential amino acid is an amino acid important to keep the body healthy. The body can’t create it itself, but it’s available in food.

Protein

A protein is a natural item in a chain of amino acids. Proteins produce body tissues (skin, hair, muscle, etc).

Fat

  1. Fat is a greasy or oily item in a creature living.
  2. Fat is a material from animal or plant use to cook in the form of liquid or solid.

Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a molecule build with hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. The body uses it for energy.

Gas

Gas is a material in the form of air.

Carbon

Carbon is a material non-metallic in a lot of matter on earth and in all living creatures.

Oxygen

Oxygen is an essential gas for living creatures. It has neither odor nor color.

Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a flammable gas without odor or color. The universe is full of it.

Enzyme

An enzyme is a material created by organisms. It provokes chemical reactions.

Digestion

Digestion is the mechanism of decomposition of food into different elements. After, the body can use those elements.

Metabolism

Metabolism is a physical and chemical mechanism in an organism to preserve life.

Metabolism produces energy to create, preserve and destroy cells and tissues.

Anabolism

Anabolism is a metabolic mechanism in an organism. This mechanism uses energy to create complex materials from simple materials. For example, to create tissue, it uses proteins.

Anabolism is also called constructive metabolism.

Catabolism

Catabolism is a metabolic mechanism in an organism. This mechanism decomposes complex materials in simple materials. For example, it breaks down proteins into amino acids. It also produces energy.

Catabolism is also called destructive metabolism.

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-Steph

Protein (Part 1)

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What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in nutrition to stay in shape. I read some advices from Arnold Schwarzenegger and I learned some good stuff.

Your body uses protein to build, repair and maintain muscle tissue. Bodybuilders have a great knowledge of nutrition, especially the protein for building muscle. Since they want to consume much more muscle than the average person, they consume more protein than average.

Your body uses protein to build muscle only if all the necessary amino acids are available. The small problem is that your body doesn’t produce by itself all the necessary amino acids. Amino acids that your body can’t produce are called essential amino acids and fortunately they’re available in foods.

Proteins are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen like other macronutrients, but proteins have one more element, nitrogen. Bodybuilders often explain that they have a positive or negative nitrogen balance, which means that they’re in an anabolic state (muscle gain) or in a catabolic state (loss of muscle).

Food and protein

There are foods called complete proteins, which means that they provide all the amino acids needed to create usable proteins. Milk, eggs, meat, fish and many vegetable products have complete proteins. Be careful because these foods don’t have the same amount of usable protein by weight. For example a food that contains 10 grams of protein, your body can use only 7 grams.

Here is a table that shows the amount of protein by weight and the protein’s amount used in your body as a percentage for the most common foods :

Food% Protein by weight% Net Protein Utilization
Eggs1294
Milk482
Fish18-2580
Cheese22-3670
Brown rice870
Meat and flowl19-3168
Soybean flour4261

(Whey is a byproduct of milk that contain much more protein than eggs)

This table tells us that an egg contains only 12% protein by weight. Despite this small percentage, an egg contains an amino acids balance that allows your body to use 94% of it. However, the table tells us that soy flour contains 42% protein by weight. But because of the amino acids composition, your body can use only 61%. This shows us that there is a difference between the protein’s amount in a food and the protein’s amount your body can use.

This is the end of Part 1.In Part 2, I show you that in cases where you don’t have complete protein foods, it’s possible to make combination of food to have the maximum protein used by your body.

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-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

Basic Nutrients

nutrient, nutrition, carbohydrate, lipide, fat, oil, protein, macro, food

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in nutrition to stay in shape. I read some advices from Arnold Schwarzenegger and I learned some good stuff.

There are 3 basics nutrients called macronutrients :

Protein

A protein is made of different amino acids to provide the materials constituting the muscle tissue. A protein is also a component used in all body organs such as tendons, bones, skin structure and other bodily functions because all enzymes are proteins.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are fuel for energy. They’re made of different molecules more or less complex than those of sugar or starch.

Fats

Fats or oils contain the densest energy reserves.

Water

Water is an essential element. It make up about 72% of the muscle and most bodybuilders drink several liters of water a day.

There are several nutrients called micronutrients :

nutrient, nutrition, food, vitamin, mineral, fruit, vegetable, micro

Vitamins

Vitamins are essential chemical elements that allow several biochemical reactions.

Minerals

Minerals are essential for many vital functions of the body.

Essential amino acids

Amino acids are part of the protein that we receive from food.

Essential fatty acids

Essential acids are elements that we receive from plants or fish oils.

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-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

SLAP Tears

slap tear anatomy shoulder

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

SLAP is an acronym for superior labrum anterior to posterior. The labrum is a rim of tissue that adds depth to the bony socket of the shoulder. The superior or « top » portion or the labrum is important and frequently injured because the biceps attaches to this region.

How

SLAP tears happens because of physical activity with repetitive overhead movements or physical shock. Tears created because of overhead movements are common among athletes as basball pitchers or tennis players. Tears created due to physical shocks are often a fall on a hand stretched with the arm over the head or fall directly on the shoulder.

Diagnosis

slap tear anatomy shoulder

SLAP tears are very difficult to diagnose only with a physical exam because of different shoulder problems. Using a MRI with or without contrast helps a lot.

Treatment

The first step is to do a nonsurgical treatment. While the SLAP tear likely will not heal, a study confirmed that many have improvement of symptoms and function. If nonsurgical treatment (such as physical therapy) isn’t successful, surgery is being considered.

Surgery is usually done arthroscopically and involves reattaching the torn labrum to the top of the cavity. Generally, bone anchors loaded with sutures are inserted into the top of the cavity. The sutures are passed through the torn area of the labrum. The sutures are tied, which brings the torn labrum to the bone.

Prevention

Although it’s difficult to avoir acute SLAP tears, it’s possible to prevent chronic tears, especially with athletes who make overhead movements, maintaining balance in the shoulder.

Exercices that strengthen the muscles around the shoulder blades and exercises that stretch posterior shoulders are recommended to reduce the risk of SLAP chronic tears.

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-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

Manage Your Amino Acids

amino acids

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE !!! I watched a Jamcore DZ’s video  and I learned some good stuff.

To put it simply, protein is an assembly of amino acids which means that you have to eat protein so that your body can have amino acids. There are a total 20 amino acids, 8 are essential and 12 nonessential. Be careful, nonessential amino acids are also needed. When you see an amino acid with the word « star », it means that it’s an important amino acid to be in shape.

What we call essential amino acids are those that our body doesn’t not produce. That’s why you have to look for them from an outside source. This outside source is the food you eat in the form of meat, egg, fish, dairy product, etc. And it’s possible that the outside source is whey protein powder in concentrate, isolate or hydrolyzate form.

Each amino acid has one or more important functions that’s why I’m only going to talk about important functions to be in shape.

amino acids table

Essential amino acids

Here are the 8 amino acids :

Lysine

This amino acid transports calcium to your body and reduces the tryglycerin’s rate.

Isoleucine, Leucine and Valine are BCAA (amino acids star)

These 3 amino acids have the function of giving energy, repair muscle tissue, anticatabolic, helps in congestion (pump) and helps burn fat.

Methionine

This amino acid is an antioxidant, helps in burning fat in the liver.

Threonine

This amino acid creates elastin and collagen, it’s for the skin. This is beneficial for slowing down old age.

Phenylananine

This amino acid increases alertness.

Tryptophane (amino acids star)

This amino acid reduces appetite and promotes sleep. It’s also a precursor of serotonin, that is to say gives you a good mood.

Nonessential amino acids

Here are the 12 amino acids :

Histidine

This amino acid helps recovery and growth.

Arginine (amino acids star)

This amino acid is the Viagra of amino acids. It’s also the precursor of nitric oxide which helps with congestion.

Glutamine (amino acids star)

This amino acid helps to be focus, to have more energy and helps with recovery.

Aspartic acid

This amino acid increases testosterone but is not definitive. There has been a lot of scientific studies concerning this amino acid but unfortunately, it has not been 100% proven that aspartic acid naturally increases testosterone. This is why it’s interesting to read the latest scientific studies on amino acids because we’ll discover new things.

Gutamic acid

This amino acid is a neurotransmitter and it’s also used as a fuel of the brain.

Cysteine

This amino acid a detoxifier for the liver, fat burner and antioxidant.

Ornithine (amino acids star)

This amino acid derived from arginine. It increases your growth hormone, increases your sleep and gives you more vitality.

Glycine

This amino acid increases your energy and helps the synthesis of creatine.

Proline

This amino acid protects your joint.

Serine

This amino acid increases your energy, your memory and focus.

Taurine

This amino acid increases your energy, focus and endurance.

Tyrosine

This amino acid is important for the body because it regulates your hormones which are dopamine, epinephrine and adrenaline.

Amino acid derivatives

These amino acids are not part of the list of essential and nonessential amino acids because they derive from these 2 lists.

L-Carnitine (star)

This amino acid derives from Methionine and Lysine. This increase your energy, helps burn fat in your liver and burns fat.

Citrulline Malate (amino acids star)

This amino acid derives from Arginine which allows you to produce more Arginine in your body, helps to create more nitric oxide, more vasodilatation, more congestion, more endurance and more recovery buffer of lactic acid.

Choline and Inositol

These amino acids derive from Methionine and Serine. This helps in burning fat in the liver, helps to focus and it’s a fat burner.

amino acids food source

amino acids food source bcaa

If you don’t read my article about protein, click here.

Subscribe to my newsletter and share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here.

Shoulder Instability Or Dislocations

shoulder instability anatomy

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

Shoulder is the most mobile joint of the body. This allows you to lift your arm, rotate your arm and lift your arm over your head. It’s possible to have a greater range of motion with less stability.

How

Shoulder instability

This happens when the humerus head (the upper arm bone) is forced out of the shoulder’s cavity. Usually this happens as a result of a sudden traumatic injury.

Once the shoulder is dislocated, the shoulder is vulnerable to repeat. When the shoulder is loose and slips several times, it’s called a chronic shoulder instability.

The shoulder is made of 3 bones : humerus (upper arm bone), scapula (shoulder blade) and clavicle (collarbone).

Dislocation shoulder

shoulder dislocation anatomy

This may be partial, which means that the arm’s ball partially comes out from the cavity. This is called a subluxation. This can be complete which means that the arm’s ball comes out completely from the cavity.

Symptoms

Symptoms of chronic shoulder instability are :

  • Pain caused by the shoulder injury

  • Repeated shoulder’s dislocation

  • Repeated instance of the shoulder giving out

  • A persistent sensation of the shoulder that is loose, slipping out of the joint or hanging.

Diagnosis

Specific tests help assess shoulder instability (including general relaxation of ligaments). A doctor may prescribe imaging tests such as X-rays, CT Scan or MRI to confirm the diagnosis and identify other problems.

Treatment

First, chronic shoulder instability treated with nonsurgical options. If these options don’t relieve pain and instability, surgery may be needed.

Nonsurgical treatment

shoulder dislocation treatment non surgical

Generally, it often takes several months of nonsurgical treatment before success can be assessed. Nonsurgical treatments includes :

  • Activity modification

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication

  • Physical therapy

Surgical treatment

shoulder dislocation treatment surgery bankart repair

Often, surgery is often required to repair torn or stretched ligaments so that they can maintain the shoulder joint in place.

Bankart lesions (tearing of the front labrum from the cavity) can be repaired surgically using suture anchors to reattach the ligaments to the bone.

Arthroscopy => Soft tissues of the shoulder can be repaired using tiny instruments and small incisions. It’s a procedure that is done the same day or outpatient. Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgery. The surgeon examines the inside of the shoulder with a small camera and performs the operation with special instruments.

Open surgery => These are patients who require open surgical intervention. This involves making a wider incision on the shoulder and performing the repair under direct visualization.

Rehabilitation

After surgery, the shoulder can be temporarily immobilized with a sling. When the sling is removed, it’s essential to do ligament rehabilitation exercises. These exercises improve the range of motion of the shoulder and avoid scarring during ligament healing. Thereafter, exercises for strengthening the shoulder will be added in the rehabilitation program.

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-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

Shoulder Impingement

shoulder impingement

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

Impingement is the fact of having mechanical compression and/or tendon wear of the rotator cuff. Rotator cuff is composed of a serie of 4 muscles connected to the shoulder blade at the humeral head (upper part of the shoulder joint). The function of the rotator cuff is to maintain the humeral head within the glenoid (socket) during normal shoulder function and to participate in shoulder strength during activity. Normally, the rotator cuff glides gently between the inferior surface of the acromion, the bone at the point of the shoulder and the humeral head.

Causes

Any process that can interfere with rotator cuff being able to glide normally can cause impingement. The causes are :

  • Weakening

  • Degeneration of the tendon due to aging

  • Formation of the bone spurs

  • Inflammation of tissues on the space above the rotator cuff

  • Injury due to overuse

Overuse activities that can lead to impingement are most commonly seen in tennis players, pitchers and swimmers.

Diagnosis

shoulder impingement

Diagnosis can be made with the patient’s history and physical examination. Patients suffering impingement often complain of pain in the shoulder. This pain worsens with overhead activity and can be so strong that it causes an awakening during the night. Manipulation of the shoulder in a specific way by a doctor will usually reproduce the symptoms and confirm the diagnosis. X-rays are also useful for the evaluation of the presence of bone spurs and/or the narrowing of the subacromial space.

Treatment

The first thing to do is to eliminate identifiable causes or factor that contribute to the pain. This means temporarily avoiding activities like tennis, pitching or swimming. A non steroidal anti-inflammatory medication may also be recommended by your doctor. The treatment is based on exercises aimed at restoring flexibility and normal strength to the shoulder girdle, especially by strengthening the muscles of the rotator cuff and the muscles responsible for the normal movements of the scapula (shoulder blade). This program may be performed by a doctor, a certified athletic trainer or a qualified physiotherapist. Sometimes a cortisone injection may be helpful in the treatment.

Surgery

Surgery isn’t necessary in most case of shoulder impingement. But if the symptoms persist despite non-surgical treatment, surgical intervention may be beneficial. Surgery involves deriding or surgically removing, tissue that is irritating the rotator cuff. This can be done with open or arthroscopic technique. The result is favorable in about 90% of cases.

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-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .