What Words To Know In The Fitness (Part 2)

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This part of what words to know in the fitness is more about diet and nutrition. If you didn’t read the first part, click here.

Healthy

  1. A healthy body has a lot of energy and strength. This means that the body doesn’t have any dysfunction, damage, illness or pain.
  2. Something healthy can be emotional, mental or physical

Hormone

A hormone is a chemical. Body fluids or blood carry it to organs and cells for a specific function.

Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a material soft and waxy in body tissues. It’s an essential element to create cells and different hormones.

Food

Food is a physical thing. The body absorbs it and uses nutrients to provide the energy and growth needed.

Diet

  1. A diet is the food and drinks food ingested by an individual.
  2. A diet is a certain plan for managing a person’s food and drink. This plan has a specific goal such as gaining/losing weight or others.

Nourish

To nourish is the act of bringing food or other materials to help the body to be healthy and growing.

Nutrition

Nutrition is the mechanism to nourish the body. It’s helpful to be healthy by creating and changing tissues.

Nutrient

A nutrient is a material. An organism needs it to stay alive and grow.

Macronutrient

A macronutrient is a nutritional component in a huge amount needed for a diet. It is usually composed of carbohydrates, fat, minerals (magnesium, zinc, etc) and protein.

Vitamin

A vitamin is a materiel. An organism needs it for cells can work and grow.

Mineral

A mineral is a natural material without carbon from the earth. There are several such as zinc, magnesium, sodium, potassium, etc. The body needs minerals to create hormones, regulate the heartbeat, or produce bones. They are essential for many physiological functions.

Sugar

Sugar is a carbohydrate in the sweet category. It comes from fruits, grains, plants, and other sources.

Glucose

Glucose is sugar. It is available in nature and is an essential source of energy. Glucose composed of several carbohydrates

Blood Sugar

  1. Blood sugar is glucose in the blood
  2. Blood sugar is the accumulation of glucose in the blood. The method of measurement is in milligrams of glucose per 100 milliliters of blood.

Sucrose

Sucrose is a sugar. It is available in nature from plants, sugarcane or sugar beets. Sucrose is usually called table sugar.

Fructose

Fructose is a sugar in the sweet category. It comes from fruits and honey. The liver turns fructose into glucose and puts it in the blood.

Galactose

Galactose is a sugar. It comes from dairy products. Besides, it has the same process as fructose with the liver.

Lactose

Lactose is a sugar. It comes from milk.

Glycogen

Glycogen is a carbohydrate. It comes from the liver and muscle tissue. It stores energy and transforms that energy into glucose for the needs of the body.

Simple Carbohydrate

A simple carbohydrate is a carbohydrate. It decomposes fast into glucose for the body’s needs. In the simple carbohydrate category, you can find sucrose fructose or lactose.

Complex Carbohydrate

A complex carbohydrate is a carbohydrate. It’s a simple carbohydrate chain. Not to mention the fact that it takes time to decompose into glucose.

In the complex carbohydrate category, you can find vegetables, whole grains or beans.

Starch

Starch is a complex carbohydrate. It comes from vegetables and fruits. This is also used in certain food to thicken them.

Fiber

Fiber is a carbohydrate. It comes from foods such as grains, legumes, vegetables or fruits.

Insulin

Insulin is a hormone. It comes from the pancreas and during eating, it released in the blood. Insulin helps fat tissue, organs, and muscle to store and use the food’s nutrients.

Index

An index is a structure for organizing information. This allows to analyze it and compare it to different information.

Glycemic Index

The glycemic index (GI) is a numeric structure. It lists the rate at which the body turns food into glucose. This food classification is a scale from 0 to 100 based on the influence of food on blood glucose.

55 and under on the index is low. 56 to 69 on the index is medium. 70 and above on the index is high.

The fact than the liver transforms fast the simple carbohydrates, they have a high GI level. White potato has 82,.white rice has 89, white bread has 71, and sucrose has 65.

In contrast, the liver transforms slower the complex carbohydrate. That’s why they have a low IG level. Whole grain pasta has 42, peanuts have 7, black beans have 30, and apples have 39.

Fatty Acid

A fatty acid is an acid. It comes from fat or oil from plants and animals

Essential Fatty Acid

An essential fatty acid is an acid. It’s crucial for human beings because the body can’t create it. Foods provide it.

Saturated Fat

Saturated fat is fat. It can be solid at room temperature. It comes from plants and animals. Not to mention you can find it in palm kernel oil, cottonseed oil, coconut oil, lard, butter, cheese, cream, and meat.

Unsaturated Fat

Unsaturated fat is fat. It can be liquid at room temperature. It comes from plants and animals. You can find it in fish, oils vegetable, nuts, and avocado.

Trans Fatty Acid

Trans fatty acid is an unsaturated fatty acid. It’s available in nature and in an artificial way. You can find it in processed foods such as frozen dinners, ice cream, fast food, pastries, and cereals. Foods with “hydrogenated oil” have trans fatty acids.

Milligram

One milligram is a metric unit of weight. 1000 milligram is one gram.

Milliliter

One milliliter is a metric unit of capacity. 1000 milliliters is one liter. One liter is about 4.2 cups.

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-Steph

What Words To Know In The Fitness (Part 1)

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This part of what words to know in the fitness is about physiology to know the mechanisms of living creatures. If you’re curious about why I’m doing it, click here. The definitions come from, or a mix from these three dictionaries:

Several dictionaries can help to better understand a word.

Matter

  1. The matter is a material object.
  2. In the field of science, physics, the matter is an element that occupies space and the force can move it.

Energy

  1. Energy is the force that comes from sources such as food, fuel, electricity or other. It allows to do a task or produce a movement.
  2. Energy is the intellectual or physical power of an individual to do a work

Organism

The organism is a living creature like a plant, animal or human being

Cell

Cell the main denomination of all living creatures.

It exists living things with only one cell. The human being has more than 37 trillions of cells.

Cells born, multiply, create energy, transfer information and die.

Tissue

The tissue is a set of cells in living creatures. This creates a type of physical structure with defined behavior.

Organ

An organ is a set of tissues. All tissues combined have the function of performing a task in an organism such as the lungs, skin or heart.

Beware, skeletal muscle has only one type of tissue, so it is not considered an organ.

Muscle

Muscle is a type of tissue. It is usually connected to the bones and contracts and relaxes to create a movement.

Muscle fiber

A muscle fiber has several names as a muscle cell or myocyte. It is a group of long filiform strands named contracted myofibrils.

Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle is muscle tissue. It linked to the skeleton to help the body move the limbs and other body parts.

Chemistry

Chemistry is a scientific field. It studies the composition, the properties and the reaction of matter.

Chemical

  1. Chemistry is the act of interacting materials studied in chemistry.
  2. A chemical is a material that can have a chemical process or change.

There exist natural and man-made chemicals

Element

An element (chemical element) is a material that it’s not possible to decompose into little parts.

More than 100 are the main components of matter.

Gram

One gram is a metric unit of weight. One pound is about 454 grams.

Kilogram

One kilogram is a metric unit of weight. 1,000 grams is about 2.2 pounds.

Celsius

Celsius is a scale of temperature on which water freezes at 0 degrees and boils at 100 degrees.

Fahrenheit is a scale of temperature on which water freezes at 32 degrees and boils at 212 degrees. The United States uses Fahrenheit.

Calorie

A calorie is energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius.

Calories are also called kilocalories (1000 calories). Kilocalories are convenient for measuring the energy value of foods.

Compound

A compound is a material composed of two or more diverse components.

Molecule

A molecule is the smallest particle of a component in a material.

If you break it down, it becomes the element that created the molecule.

Acid

An acid is a chemical material that reacts with another material. It can also dissolve certain elements.

Amino acid

An amino acid is a natural item in proteins

Essential amino acid

An essential amino acid is an amino acid important to keep the body healthy. The body can’t create it itself, but it’s available in food.

Protein

A protein is a natural item in a chain of amino acids. Proteins produce body tissues (skin, hair, muscle, etc).

Fat

  1. Fat is a greasy or oily item in a creature living.
  2. Fat is a material from animal or plant use to cook in the form of liquid or solid.

Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a molecule build with hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. The body uses it for energy.

Gas

Gas is a material in the form of air.

Carbon

Carbon is a material non-metallic in a lot of matter on earth and in all living creatures.

Oxygen

Oxygen is an essential gas for living creatures. It has neither odor nor color.

Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a flammable gas without odor or color. The universe is full of it.

Enzyme

An enzyme is a material created by organisms. It provokes chemical reactions.

Digestion

Digestion is the mechanism of decomposition of food into different elements. After, the body can use those elements.

Metabolism

Metabolism is a physical and chemical mechanism in an organism to preserve life.

Metabolism produces energy to create, preserve and destroy cells and tissues.

Anabolism

Anabolism is a metabolic mechanism in an organism. This mechanism uses energy to create complex materials from simple materials. For example, to create tissue, it uses proteins.

Anabolism is also called constructive metabolism.

Catabolism

Catabolism is a metabolic mechanism in an organism. This mechanism decomposes complex materials in simple materials. For example, it breaks down proteins into amino acids. It also produces energy.

Catabolism is also called destructive metabolism.

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-Steph

Dietary Fats

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What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in nutrition to stay in shape. I read some advice from Arnold Schwarzenegger and I learned some good stuff.

Of the 3 macronutriments, fats are the nutrients that are the most dense in energy. Fat is composed of the same thing as carbohydrates (carbon, hydrogen and oxygen) but the difference is that the atoms are not linked together in the same way. Fat is in plants and animals. Oils are liquid fats. Fats are insoluble in water. Fats are organized in 3 categories:

  • Simple fats (triglycerides)
  • Compound fats (phospholipid, glucolipid, lipoprotein)
  • Derived fats (cholesterol)

Here are the 3 fat’s functions in your body:

  1. Fats are the main source of stored energy (body fat)
  2. Fats help to protect and cushion the major organs
  3. Fats have an insulator effect, preserving body heat and protecting against excessive cold.

Fat is the most dense nutrient in calories 1 pound (453gr) of fat contains 4000 calories while 1 pound (453gr) of protein or carbohydrate contains about 1800 calories.

When you do exercise and stay within your aerobic capacity, it means you don’t run out of breath, your body uses fats and carbohydrates as a source of energy at around 50/50. But if you continue, your body will use more fat than carbohydrates as a source of energy. If you train for 3 hours, your body can use fat to create 80% energy for your body.

As you could read, there is different type of fat: saturated, unsaturated and polyunsaturated. These terms mean the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the molecule. Here is an analogy with a string’s ball so that it’s easier to understand. Saturated fat is like a length of string in a messy clutter. Unsaturated is like a rope with some entanglements. And polyunsaturated is like a rope carefully wrapped without the sign of a tangle. The more fat is saturated (tangled), the more likely it’s to remain in the body and clog the arteries, which increase the risk of heart disease.

There are also other factors. Diets rich in saturated fat tend to increase cholesterol levels in the blood. Health experts advise that 2/3 of your fat intake is polyunsaturated fat.

Saturated fats are found in:

  • Beef
  • Lamb
  • Pork
  • Chicken
  • Shellfish
  • Egg yolks
  • Cream
  • Milk
  • Cheese
  • Butter
  • Vegetable shortening
  • Chocolate
  • Lard

Unsaturated fats are found in:

  • Avocados
  • Cashews
  • Olives and olive oil
  • Peanuts, peanuts oil, peanut butter

Polyunsaturated fats are found in:

  • Almonds
  • Cottonseed oil
  • Margarine (usually)
  • Pecans
  • Sunflower oil
  • Corn oil
  • Fish
  • Mayonnaise
  • Safflower oil
  • Soybean oil
  • Walnuts

Essential Fatty Acids

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Essential fatty acids are inevitable in a healthy diet because your body can’t create it itself- That’s why it’s essential that you eat foods containing essential fatty acids. It’s a shame because many bodybuilders have low fat diets and they develop deficiencies in dietary fat. Fortunately there are foods and supplements that provide “good fats” to avoid this extreme. Here are some examples:

Fish oil

Instead of eating low-fat fish, test salmon, trout or mackerel. Fish oil is needed by organs, especially the brain. You can also take fish oils as supplements.

Polyunsaturated vegetable oil

In vegetable oils, there are 2 acids that are valuable: linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Supermarket oils such as corn oil, sunflower oil and safflower oil don’t contain linoleic acid. Soybean oil is the only supermarket oil containing linoleic acid but you need ot pay attention to GMO. For linolenic acid, you can find that in linseed oil, walnut oil, pumpkin seed oil.

Monounsaturated fatty acids

There are the most harmless fatty acids compared to some polyunsaturated fatty acids because they don’t affect your cholesterol or your prostaglandins (regulators of the hormones action). Monounsaturated fatty acids are found in olive oil and macadamia nuts.

Supplements of fatty acid

These supplements contain essential fatty acids from fish oils and other sources.

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-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

Carbohydrate

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What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in nutrition to stay in shape. I read some advice from Arnold Schwarzenegger and I learned some good stuff.

Carbohydrates are the main source of energy in the body. All carbohydrates are sugars that are molecules containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Glucose is synthesis by plants through the photosynthesis process (using the sun’s energy) or by animals during the glycogen synthesis process. But be careful when I talk about glucose (sugar), I’m not talking about table sugar. There are several categories of glucoses (sugars). Here they are:

Monosaccharides

  • Glucose (blood sugar)
  • Fructose (fruit sugar)
  • Galactose (a kind of milk sugar)

Oligosaccharides

  • Sucrose(table sugar)
  • Lactose(milk sugar)
  • Maltose (malt sugar)

Polysaccharides

  • Plant polysaccharides(starch and cellulose)
  • Animal polysaccharides (glycogen)

The speed of which carbohydrate metabolized are measured with the glycemic index. A high glycemic index (a large increase in serum glucose) indicate that carbohydrates metabolized rapidly. A low glycemic index (a small increase in serum glucose) indicates that carbohydrates metabolized slowly or differently.

What’s cool now I being able to check the gylcemic index of foods on internet. For example, Chinese restaurant rice has a very high glycemic index compared to brown rice or wild rice.

carbohydrate, bread, rice, pasta, potato

Carbohydrates are the easiest type of food to turn into energy for the body. When carbohydrates converted to glucose, glucose circulates in the blood and helps muscle contraction. Glycogen in the muscle and liver stored for future use. A supply of carbohydrates is necessary for an ambitious bodybuilder for several reasons:

  1. Carbohydrates are a basic type of energy. Carbohydrate stored in the muscles in the form of glycogen will allow to train intense and heavy.
  2. Size of muscles increases when the body stores glycogen and water in individual muscle cells.
  3. Carbohydrates in the body have an effect that prevents the body from burning excess protein to create energy.
  4. Glucose is the main source of energy for the brain to be operational. Carbohydrate deprivation can have very negative effects on mood, personality and mental abilities.

There is a reason why carbohydrates are really needed as fuel for a workout. This is because most exercises are anaerobics exercises. Anaerobics exercises are flushed through intense puffs and exceed the body’s ability to provide enough oxygen to sustain the effort. But the carbohydrates structure allows to continue feeding the muscles during an exercise for a short period without oxygen. Therefore, when you do intensive weight training or you run a 100 meter sprint, your energy for these efforts is mainly composed of carbohydrates.

Carbohydrate supplement

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Intense training creates a demand in the body to replace glycogen and amino acids. Be careful that your body contains enough carbohydrates after training, otherwise your body may start using amino acids (protein) as a source of energy. The period during which the body is in very high demand for carbohydrates is shorter than for proteins. The best results are obtained when you give the necessary carbohydrates to your body about 20 minutes after your training.

This need for immediate replacement of glycogen is the reason why many bodybuilders use a carbohydrate supplement after training with a protein supplement. It’s very useful when you do a strength training with a cardiovascular session (treadmill, stepper or bike). If you do cardio too soon after your strength training, you’ll be depriving your body of carbohydrates. And as you lack energy, your body will quickly use your amino acids (protein) to create the energy that is missing.

Subscribe to my newsletter and share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

Protein (Part 2)

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If you didn’t read Part 1, click here .

An egg is an excellent source of protein and its protein is so good that the egg is used as a basis of comparison to evaluate the protein quality of other foods. The egg has an arbitrary value of a « perfect » 100% :

FoodProtein rating
Eggs (whole)100
Fish70
Lean beef69
Cow’s milk60
Brown rice57
White rice56
Soybeans47
Whole-grain wheat44
Peanuts43
Dry beans34
White potatoes34

In the table, there is the value of whole eggs and it’s done on purpose. There is a fashion that consists only of eating the egg’s white because the yellow contains fat and cholesterol (which the egg’s white doesn’t have). The problem is that the egg’s yellow contains as much protein as the egg white and the majority of the vitamins and minerals of the egg.

In the table, you can see that rice, potatoes and beans give less usable protein than eggs and fish. It’s because that they have few essential amino acids. However, you can combine foods that have little useful protein so that the mix of all this gives you the amount of usable protein you need.

With this combination of feeds that have little usable protein, adding a complete protein food makes an excellent meal.

This combination of food with little usable protein is convenient because these are foods that are generally low in calories and fat, which is not the case for many complete protein foods. When you try to get as much muscle as possible with less fat, it helps a lot. You can also have fat-free protein with supplements.

In Part 1, I said that foods with little usable protein devoid of some essential amino acids, that’s why you have to have a special combination with food to make up for that lack. In « Diet for a small planet » by France Moore Lappe, the following combinations are recommended :

Grains plus Seeds

  • Breads with added seed meals
  • Breads with sesame or sunflower seed spread
  • Rice with sesame seeds

Grains plus Milk Products

  • Cereal with milk
  • Pasta with milk or cheese
  • Bread with milk or cheese

Grains plus legumes

  • Rice and beans
  • Wheat bread and baked beans
  • Corn soy or wheat-soy bread
  • Legume soup with bread

By remembering these food categories, you will be able to combine your foods to have the maximum protein available for use. You can also read a nutritional guide to know which of the 8 essential amino acids is missing in a food to be more precise, but with these food categories, it’s easier.

You just have to calculate the amount of protein you need per day, apply what you just read and reach your goals.

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-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

Protein (Part 1)

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What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in nutrition to stay in shape. I read some advices from Arnold Schwarzenegger and I learned some good stuff.

Your body uses protein to build, repair and maintain muscle tissue. Bodybuilders have a great knowledge of nutrition, especially the protein for building muscle. Since they want to consume much more muscle than the average person, they consume more protein than average.

Your body uses protein to build muscle only if all the necessary amino acids are available. The small problem is that your body doesn’t produce by itself all the necessary amino acids. Amino acids that your body can’t produce are called essential amino acids and fortunately they’re available in foods.

Proteins are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen like other macronutrients, but proteins have one more element, nitrogen. Bodybuilders often explain that they have a positive or negative nitrogen balance, which means that they’re in an anabolic state (muscle gain) or in a catabolic state (loss of muscle).

Food and protein

There are foods called complete proteins, which means that they provide all the amino acids needed to create usable proteins. Milk, eggs, meat, fish and many vegetable products have complete proteins. Be careful because these foods don’t have the same amount of usable protein by weight. For example a food that contains 10 grams of protein, your body can use only 7 grams.

Here is a table that shows the amount of protein by weight and the protein’s amount used in your body as a percentage for the most common foods :

Food% Protein by weight% Net Protein Utilization
Eggs1294
Milk482
Fish18-2580
Cheese22-3670
Brown rice870
Meat and flowl19-3168
Soybean flour4261

(Whey is a byproduct of milk that contain much more protein than eggs)

This table tells us that an egg contains only 12% protein by weight. Despite this small percentage, an egg contains an amino acids balance that allows your body to use 94% of it. However, the table tells us that soy flour contains 42% protein by weight. But because of the amino acids composition, your body can use only 61%. This shows us that there is a difference between the protein’s amount in a food and the protein’s amount your body can use.

This is the end of Part 1.In Part 2, I show you that in cases where you don’t have complete protein foods, it’s possible to make combination of food to have the maximum protein used by your body.

Subscribe to my newsletter and share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

Basic Nutrients

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What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in nutrition to stay in shape. I read some advices from Arnold Schwarzenegger and I learned some good stuff.

There are 3 basics nutrients called macronutrients :

Protein

A protein is made of different amino acids to provide the materials constituting the muscle tissue. A protein is also a component used in all body organs such as tendons, bones, skin structure and other bodily functions because all enzymes are proteins.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are fuel for energy. They’re made of different molecules more or less complex than those of sugar or starch.

Fats

Fats or oils contain the densest energy reserves.

Water

Water is an essential element. It make up about 72% of the muscle and most bodybuilders drink several liters of water a day.

There are several nutrients called micronutrients :

nutrient, nutrition, food, vitamin, mineral, fruit, vegetable, micro

Vitamins

Vitamins are essential chemical elements that allow several biochemical reactions.

Minerals

Minerals are essential for many vital functions of the body.

Essential amino acids

Amino acids are part of the protein that we receive from food.

Essential fatty acids

Essential acids are elements that we receive from plants or fish oils.

Subscribe to my newsletter and share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .