SLAP Tears

slap tear anatomy shoulder

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

SLAP is an acronym for superior labrum anterior to posterior. The labrum is a rim of tissue that adds depth to the bony socket of the shoulder. The superior or « top » portion or the labrum is important and frequently injured because the biceps attaches to this region.

How

SLAP tears happens because of physical activity with repetitive overhead movements or physical shock. Tears created because of overhead movements are common among athletes as basball pitchers or tennis players. Tears created due to physical shocks are often a fall on a hand stretched with the arm over the head or fall directly on the shoulder.

Diagnosis

slap tear anatomy shoulder

SLAP tears are very difficult to diagnose only with a physical exam because of different shoulder problems. Using a MRI with or without contrast helps a lot.

Treatment

The first step is to do a nonsurgical treatment. While the SLAP tear likely will not heal, a study confirmed that many have improvement of symptoms and function. If nonsurgical treatment (such as physical therapy) isn’t successful, surgery is being considered.

Surgery is usually done arthroscopically and involves reattaching the torn labrum to the top of the cavity. Generally, bone anchors loaded with sutures are inserted into the top of the cavity. The sutures are passed through the torn area of the labrum. The sutures are tied, which brings the torn labrum to the bone.

Prevention

Although it’s difficult to avoir acute SLAP tears, it’s possible to prevent chronic tears, especially with athletes who make overhead movements, maintaining balance in the shoulder.

Exercices that strengthen the muscles around the shoulder blades and exercises that stretch posterior shoulders are recommended to reduce the risk of SLAP chronic tears.

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-Steph

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

anterior cruciate ligament injury tear

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

Knee is the largest and most complex joint of the body. There are 4 primary ligaments (with their muscles and tendons) and secondary ligaments for the knee to function properly. Here are the ligaments of the knee : there are 2 ligaments on the side the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and two crossed ligaments in the center of the knee, the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL).

Anterior cruciate ligament connects the front top part of the shine bone to the back bottom part of the thigh bone and keeps the shin bone from sliding forward.

anterior cruciate ligament

Injury

anterior cruciate ligament injury tear

There are several ways to have an injury to the anterior cruciate ligament :

  • The injury can be done because of a direct hit on the knee, which often happens in team sport.

  • The injury can be done without contact with an object in a situation where the knee forced to be in a abnormal position, which causes a tear in one or more ligaments of the knee. Or when an athlete in the race change direction. Or when an athlete make a hyperextend of the knee when landing a jump, which often happends in agility sports.

Diagnostic

In the majority of cases, the doctor is able to identify what is the injured ligament. But the knee can also be injured at the joint on the surface and in this situation, it’s more difficult to diagnose because of knee swelling. To make an accurate diagnosis, it will be necessary to use a MRI scan or arthroscopy.

Prevent

There are several fast, powerful movements that lengthen (eccentric phase) and shorten (concentric phase) a muscle. These prevention programs are for injuries without contact. These exercises are to improve the nerves/muscle control of the knee. These prevention programs use plymetrics, balance and strength/stability exercises.

Plymetrics

It’s a fast, powerful movement that lengthens (eccentric phase) and shortens (concentric phase) a muscle. The concentric phase increases the muscle power. Here is an example, an athlete who jumps from a box and immediately jumps into the air after touching the floor.

Balance

Balance exercices are done with the wobble or balance board. It’s also possible to perfom exercices by throwing a ball with a partner while balancing on one leg.

Strength/stability

To improve single-leg core strength and stability, there are excellent exercices such as jumping and landing on one leg with the knee flexed and momentarily maintaining this position.

Surgical treatment

In the past, there was a technique that consisted of stitching the ligament together but it was rarely successful. Currently, the technique involves reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament by building a new ligament from tissue taken from one of the other tendons around the knee or from on organ donation. This tissue passed through drill holes in the thigh bone and the shin bone, and then ancored in place to create a new anterior cruciate ligament. Over time, this transplant becomes mature and becomes a new living ligament in your knee.

Recovery

recovery

Rheabilitation of the knee after the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament requires time and work. To have a complete function, this can last between 6 weeks and 6 months depending on the severity and level of activity. Rehabilitation rate may take time depending on the specific requirements of the sport/physical activity of the individual.

The overall success rate of the anterior cruciate ligament surgery is very good. A lot of study show that more than 90% of patients are able to return to sport without symptoms of knee instability. It’s true that some patients complain of stiffness and pain after surgery, that is why it’s necessary to make an aggressive rehabilitation until the new surgical technique to reduce these problems.

Statistics

  • One of the most commonly injured ligament in the knee

  • Female athletes participating in basketball and soccer are 2-8 times more likely to suffer anterior cruciate ligament injury.

  • Athlete who suffer anterior cruciate ligament injury at increased risk of arthritis development later in life.

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-Steph

Abs Stretching

abs stretching anatomy

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE ! I read a Frederic Delavier’s book « Strength Training Anatomy » and I learned good stuff.

Lying on your stomach on your hands with your arms extended :

  • Straighten up your chest slowly by tilting your head back slightly

  • Maintain this position for few seconds while breathing slowly to feel the stretching of your abs.

Variant

It’s possible to make this movement with your hands on a bench and your feet on the floor, or you’re lying on your back on a big ball (Swissball).

Note

Stretching of abs can be an important element in some sports like throwing sports, especially the javelin. In this type of sports, it’s essential to have good flexibility and a good abdominal amplitude to make the movement perfectly.

Attention

Abs stretching are to be avoided in case of lumbar pathology.

different pelvis position man woman anterior superior iliac spine pubic tubercle anatomy

abs pregnant woman child belly weight antomy

Note

The position tilted forward (anteversion) of women’s pelvis allows a portion of the child’s weight to be transferred to the abs. By analogy, abs muscles can be compared to a « hammock ».

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-Steph

Stretching For Squat

stretching squat

I read a Frederic Delavier’s book « Strength Training Anatomy » and I learned good stuff.

Here is a stretching exercice often done by the powerlifters to avoid having muscle tears during the squat. It’s a stretching exercise to do during the warm-up session and between the first sets.

This stretching exercise involves crouching slowly while hanging on a stable support such as a pole or the frame of a machine to flex your thighs.

This movement corresponds to squat flexion and this allows you to stretch adductors, mainly adductor magnus. The adductors magnus is the muscle the most frequently injured due to the excessive tilt of the torso with heavy weight.

This exercice stretches quadriceps (except rectus femoris), gluteus maximus and the set of small, deep, external rotator muscles of the hip that stabilize and slow down the anterior tilt of the pelvis during crouching.

Note

To better feel the stretch of the leg you can move the weight of your body on the right leg and then on the left leg.

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-Steph

How To Do Front Squat

front squat

I read a Frederic Delavier’s book « Strength Training Anatomy » and I learned good stuff.

Standing with your feet apart at about the shoulder’s width. You take the barbell with a pronated grip and you put the barbell on your upper chest and your anterior deltoid :

  • Inhale deeply to maintain intrathoracic pressure that prevents your torso from sagging forward. Arch slightly your back. Squeeze your abs and bends your thighs to bring them to the horizontal.

  • Return to the starting position and exhale at the end of the movement.

To prevent the barbell from slipping forward, pull out your chest and raise your elbows as high as possible.

As the barbell placed anteriorly, your chest will not bend forward and your back will always be straight. You have the possibility to put a wedge under your heels to ease the movement of execution.

Front squat is an exercise to do with weights less heavy than the classic squat.

This exercise works the quadriceps, glutes, hamstrings, abs and erector spinae.

Front squat is an exercise used in weightlifting training because the movement corresponds perfectly to the work performed by thighs during snatch and clean and jerk.

front squat

With a specific machine, you can do the same work on quadriceps as the front squat by wedging your legs and bending your thighs.

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-Steph

Stretching Of Trapezius And Neck

stretching trapezius neck

I read a Frederic Delavier’s book « Strength Training Anatomy » and I learned good stuff.

A hand on your head, you pull slowly to tilt your head to the side. This exercise stretches the sternocleidomastoid, all (anterior, middle and posterior) scalenes muscles, the upper part of the trapezius, splenius capitis , splenius cervicis , semispinalis and small spine muscles like longus colli, rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis lateralis and rectus capitis posterior major muscle.

Attention

Pull your head slowly with caution. Stretching should be done gradually.

Note

While you pull your head, lower your shoulders to feel the stretch of your trapezius.

Concerning the neck

stretching trapezius neck stretching trapezius neck

Quadrupeds and anthropoids (such as the gorilla) have very powerful neck muscles to prevent the head from tipping forward.

For the human being, it’s different. When the human being is fully biped depleted thus a vertical position with the head at the top of the spine , the muscles neck have become less powerful because the muscle’s neck have solely as a function of balancing the head.

  1. When the human being became biped, the morphology changed. The face‘s size decreased, the brain’s size increased and the occipital hole moved to the center of the skull. As the head is at the top of the spine, the neck’s muscles have the function of stabilizing the head

  2. Gorilla which is partially a quadruped has a larger face, a smaller brain and the occipital hole is towards the back. To prevent that head tits forward, the neck’s muscles are very powerful and developed.

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-Steph

How To Do Close-Grip Lat Pulldowns

close grip lat pulldowns exercise anatomy back

I read a Frederic Delavier’s book « Strength Training Anatomy » and I learned good stuff.

Podcast:

Sitting at the machine with your knees under the pads:

  • Inhale and bring the handle back to the sternum by swelling your chest and tilting your back slightly

  • Exhale at the end of the movement

close grip lat pulldowns exercise anatomy back

This exercise works the latissimus dorsi and teres major.

This exercise works a little bit the rhomboid, trapezius and posterior deltoid when the shoulder blades get closer.

Generally, all « Pull » exercises work the biceps and anterior brachialis. This movement with the semi-pronated grip work especially the brachioradialis.

Share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph.

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean foods, go to my cousin’s bistrot to eat Haitian food. Click here