Sudden Cardiac Death

sudden, cardiac, death, hearth, sport, athlete, scd

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an extremely rare event. The most common reason for cardiac death related to sports is the cardiomyopathy hypertrophic, an abnormal enlargement of cardiac muscle. It’s a rare heart disease that predispose a person of SCD because of physical exertion.

Commotio cordis is another reason for SCD. It’s a direct trauma to the chest at a specific moment in the cardiac cycle and this trauma triggers a dangerous arrtyhmia (abnormal rhythm) of electrical system of the heart. A commotio cordis usually arrives in sports where a blunt projectile, such as baseball ball or hockey puck, hits the athlete’s chest.

Treatment

Cardiac arrhythmias that threaten the lives of young athletes are very difficult to treat. The immediate use of AED (automated external defibrillator) can provide an advantage.

Prevent

sudden, cardiac, death, sport, hearth, athlete, scd

Unfortunately, the only way to prevent death from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is to identify the disease and recommend the athlete avoid any strenuous activities. Cardiac ultrasound can diagnose this condition. Some experts have called for the screening of athletes with ultrasound or electrocardiograms (EKG), although this screening is controversial because of the high cost and scarcity of this condition.

However, athletes with cardiac symptoms such as dizziness, fatigue, shortness of breath in relation to physical activity, palpitations, convulsions and especially syncope (fainting) must stop the competitions and must do deeper tests.

In addition, a family history of cardiac abnormalities justifies a complete cardiac evaluation. Especially a known parent with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or a history unexplained sudden death in a family member.

There is the creation of different forms of protection for the chest and pads, but unfortunately no method has prevented this tragic event. The rules regularly change in the sport and some times to try to avoid commotio cordis. For example in baseball and softball, it’s the limitation of the use of aluminium bat. This rule can protect the pitcher by decreasing the speed of the ball after contact with the bat. There are other rules too, such as using a softer ball and teaching players to turn their chest when the ball is hit by the bat.

Stats

  • Fortunately, SCD is extremely rare in the sport. For the majority of people do sports to cardiac benefits.
  • In young athetes, the most common causes of SCD are 25-30% hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 20% commotio cordis.
  • Coronary artery abnormalities are the cause of 14% of SCD in athletes.
  • Marc-Vivian Foe, a Cameroonian soccer star had a sudden cardiac death during a match in 2003.

Subscribe to my newsletter and share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

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Concussion

concussion
A blow to the head that makes the brain hit the skull

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interessed in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

A concussion is a traumatic brain injury that alters mental state or creates others symptoms. Many people think they have no concussion because they have not lost consciousness. You must know that it’s possible to have a concussion without losing consciousness. Often football or rugby players say : « I just got my bell rung » when they have been hit on the head that makes the ears rings, but these symptoms are often consistent with concussion.

Signs

  • Balance problems

  • Difficulty communicating, concentrating

  • Dizziness

  • Drowsiness

  • Fatigue

  • Feeling emotional

  • Feeling mentally foggy

  • Headache

  • Irritability

  • Memory difficulties

  • Nausea

  • Nervousness

  • Numbness or tingling

  • Sadness

  • Sensitivity to light or noise

  • Sleeping more than usual or difficulty falling asleep

  • Visual problems (blurry or double vision)

  • Vomiting

Diagnostic

diagnostic

As soon as a concussion is suspected, a trained coach, certified athletic trainer or the team physician should immediately perform an initial « sideline » evaluation, including :

  • Symptoms list review

  • Focused neurological exam

  • Focused orientation exam that tests short-term memory recall such as the event, play, opponent, score or last meal.

  • Focused orientation exam that tests long-term recall such as name, birth date, place of birth.

  • Assessment of athlete’s ability to stay attentive to a complex task such as reciting months backwards.

If a person is suspected of having a concussion and there is no diagnosis, a concussion may place an athlete at risk of developing second impact syndrome. It’s a potentially fatal injury that occurs when an athlete suffers a second head injury before the old head injury has completely healed.

Second impact syndrome

Second impact syndrome is a potentially fatal injury that occurs when an athlete suffers a second head injury before the old head injury has been fully healed. Unfortunately, it’s complicated to know if the brain has been healed from the first injury. Even after all symptoms resolved, it’s possible that the healing isn’t complete and that it increases the risk to the brain of having the second impact syndrome. Neurocognitive testing can help doctors or physician decide when the athlete can return to the competition in the best conditions.

Neurocognitive testing

Neurocognitive testing

Neurocognitive testing is a questionnaire (usually on the computer) that athletes do that deals with several areas of brain function, including memory, problem solving, reaction times, brain processing speed and post-concussion symptoms. It’s most valid if the athlete has a pre-injury baseline test on file to compare the post concussion test. This information can be really helpful for the doctor or physician to decide when the athlete can return to the competition.

When to return to the competition

All athletes suffer concussion (whatever the gravity) should pass an evaluation by a qualified health care provider before returning to the competition. Athletes should return to competition after they have been completely cleared of all concussion symptoms and have no symptoms during and after physical tests.

Baseline testing is important for assessing concussion symptoms after an incident. The baseline testing often includes neurocognitive tests, symptom checklists, sideline assessment tools such as the Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool and balance testing.

Statistics

  • Athletes who have already had a concussion are more likely to have another concussion.

  • Children and teenagers are more likely to have concussion and take longer to heal than adults.

Subscribe to my newsletter and share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

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Back To The Source Of Human Strength (Part 1)

source

I read a Nerd Fitness article  and I learned good stuff.

When I’m in gym, people tell me why they started to train. There are several reasons, lose weight, gain muscles or to be in shape for a special event. There is a golden rule to have result in strength training, it’s eat clean and lift heavy.

Everybody says it, eat clean and lift heavy but what does that means ? I think it’s time to go back to the source.

Why

why

The life is easier when we’re stronger, did you notice it ? By exemple, to carry bags from supermarket, to carry a piece of furniture, to run to be in time, etc. Everything is easier.

Strength training is extremely efficient to build muscle and burn fat. Whether to lose 6kg (15lbs) or 45kg (100lbs), it’s the same thing.

Strength training help to build muscle and lose fat but it also help to stop or even reverse sarcopenia (it’s skeletal muscle reduction with aging). Train our skeletal muscle allow us to be independant (therefore avoid nursing homes) and live longer.

The profits list isn’t finished yet.

A nice athletic body

Strength training help you keep your muscles while you’re in calories deficience and losing weight.

Strength training allows you to have a better oxygen consumption than aerobic exercices. After training your body needs to make a lot of efforts to recover and return to the normal state so the state you had before the training. Scientific studies have shown that your metabolism‘s level increase for 38 hours after your training.

Strength training increase your metabolism, increase your Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) because your body needs more calories to keep your muscls than to keep your fat. It’s estimated that for each 4.45kg (1lbs) of muscle, your RMR increase of 30-35 calories.

Improve your health

Strength training help you to improve your balance and coordination, improve cholesterol’s rate, help to control blood sugar, stop muscle loss, improve blood flow, reduces your resting blood pressure, build a stronger heart and increase bone density.

Feel better

It’s clear with strength training you have more self-confidence, your have more energy, a better mood, less anxiety and less stress . It also improves the quality of your thoughts, a scientific study has shown that this increases the cognitive function .

It’s not advisable to do a strength training 1 hour before sleeping. On the other hand to train early in the day helps to prevent sleep apnea  and insomnia.

Prevents diseases and degenerative diseases

You notices that many men and women die because of cardiac disease. Stength training helps to solve problems that are factors of heart disease such as inactivity, diabets, obesity, high blood pressure and cholesterol. Cardiologists begin to advise strength training to people who have heart attack.

Strength training helps to manage and improve the lifestyle of people with clinical depression , cancer survivors , have had a spinal cord injury ,who have recently had a stroke , fibromyalgia , Lymphedema , Down Syndrome , Parkinson’s Disease , Osteoporosis  and Arthritis.

It’s fun

Strenght training helps to reach your goals whether an effective training of 20 minutes to have a good naked body or to do a sports competition. It’s fun to see our progress because it’s like increase level in a video game. If you want to be better in a sport like badminton or rock climbing, strength training is a good choice.

People who shouldn’t train

The only people I’ve found who shouldn’t train are people who have an injury and it’s a break that doesn’t last long. We’re human being and it’s natural to carry things and move. Strength training is recommended for pregnant women , children and teenagers  and even paraplegics .

Obviously, it recommanded to see his/her doctor before beginning a strength training program to adjust the training program.

Basic objections

objection

But I’m too old, it’s not reasonable

When people between 30 and 60 years old tell me that they’re too old, I laugh because it’s a lie. It’s like say : « I don’t have time » and later I see a messsage on Facebook like : « Yestersay, Game of the thrones was epic ! ». Scientific studies have shown that people between 70 and 90 years old had impressive results in 10 weeks .

Other scientific studies have shown that this helps to avoid dementia  and to delay Alzheimer’s .

People who think they’re too old to train are exactly people who should train.

But I just want to be better for a sport and I want to stay fit

Strength training improve your muscle’s endurance, scientific studies have shown it. Resistance exercices help to increases overall muscles endurance , fix nervous system problems and increase activation of motor units within your muscles.

I don’t want to bulk too much

It’s a great strength training’s myth, it’s not in 1 year than you’ll have the bodybuilder’s body no matter wheteher you’re a man or a woman.

For women, here 2 exemples of moms who have become strong and fit without having a bodybuilder body. This is the story of Veronica  and Bronwyn .

Have a the body of a famous bodybuilder doesn’t happen in one night. Naturally we don’t have the amount of homones to have the body of a famous bodybuilder. We need to eat a huge amount of food (8 000 – 10 000 calories per day) and a huge amont of drugs (no, no, it’s another type of pharmacy, it’s true).

I’m fat, I want only lose weight

I’m fat, I want only lose weight

It’s a good reason to start strenght training. By losing weight, you surely want to keep your muscles. I mean, yout want to keep your muscles while you lose fat. With strength training you lose quickly centimeters (inches) in different body’s parts. It’s true that the overall weight loss may seem slow, that’s why is important to track your measurements. With strenght training when you eat with a caloric deficit, it’s increase your metabolism so you lose fat.

It’s boring

What I like with strength training, it’s we can see our progress quickly. It’s like increase level in a video game. I think people get bored when they expect nothing to do between 2 sets. This is why I advise people to have headphones to listen to their own music selection or an audio book to increase motivation.

Muscles and strength training

muscle fiber

Don’t be fancy, it’s interesting to understand how our muscles work to avoid failling into the Matrix’s trap. What I mean is that the only person you gave to impress is yourself and not the others.

It’s our muscle fibers that are small muscle cells that build up our muscles. Our muscle fibers are long, cylindrical and have the size of a strand of hair. Our muscle fibers are composed of myofibrils surrounded by sarcoplasm. I really summarized that but if you want to see it in detail, click here .

We have around 642 skeletal muscles that work together to make move our body. Imagine, when you bend your arm, your biceps contracts and your triceps does the opposite (elongates) to let the elbow bend. Every muscle of your body work as a team to make you move.

We have different type of muscle fibers :

Slow twitch (Type 1 fibers)

Slow twitch fibers are used to convert oxygen into energy for a long period of time. They don’t move quickly to be resistant to fatigue. These are the fibers we use most for marathons.

Fast twitch (Type 2 fibers)

Fast twitch move quickly so they’re not resistant to fatigue. Our body has 2 categories of fast fibers. The type 2A fiber has an endurence characterisitc used for long sprints. The type 2X fiber has « super fast » characterisitc used to short sprints or lift weights. I really summarized that but if you want to see it in detail, click here .

Each individual has a different percentage of slow and fast fibers. It’s for this reason that people are naturally better to run long distances or sprints. It’s funny because we can see it in strength training with people who are better to do sets with high or low repetitions.

It’s the end of the first part and the second part is event more interessting.

Share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

P.S. To read Part 2, click here.

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What Is Motivation

I read a Nerd Fitness article  and there is good stuff.

A guy named Roger Bannister in 1964, Oxford, England, did something impossible. He ran 1.6km (1 mile) in 3 minutes and 59 seconds. While 9 years, the world record was 4 minutes and 01 secondes. 3 years after Roger Bannister’s record, 13 persons ran 1.6km (1 mile) in less than 4 minutes.

It’s like the Tony Hawk’s record with the 900° on a half-pipe. Since 9 persons did it .

How is possible than suddenly abilities improves ? It’s because of equipment or we impose ourselves limits ?

Brain VS muscle

The truth is that you’re physically able to go beyond the limites that your brain tells you.

Look, in 2012, a group of trained cyclists did a 4k timed trial as fast as possible. Their guideline was « Use all efforts ».

They did this trial again with a virtual avatar who had the same speed than them at the first trial. The average speed of all cyclists was 1 % better than the first trial. Remember at the first trial, cyclists were in mode « Use all efforts ».

They did this trial a third time with a virtual avatar again. Cyclists didn’t know that the virtual avatar was a little bit faster than them. Again, cyclists beat the virtual avatar by increasing their performance of 1.7 %.

It’s like to play to Mario Kart and do a race against the ghost of your last performance. You know exactly how to increase the speed and you have a visual cue.

For more information, read the Mark McClusky’s « Faster, Higher, Stronger » about limitations, fatigue, emotions and what our bodies are capable of doing.

Tim Noakes, South Africa professor of exercices and sport science at the University of Cape Town, make the hypothesis that it’s not our body that slow down but our brain who control WHY and HOW our body slow down.

« Fatigue is an emotion, a construct in the mind that helps ensure that exercise is performed within the body’s ability. That emotion is affected by many factors, such as motivation, anger, fear, memories of past performance, self-belief, and what the body is telling the brain….our physical performance is regulated by the brain, not limited by our hearts, lungs, or muscles ».

We’re able to do more than we think. Cyclists always beat the virtual avatar who was faster than them.

How

Read a funny quote on Imgur :

« Better to cultivate discipline than to rely on motivation. force yourself to do things. force yourself to get up out of bed and practice. Force yourself to work. Motivation is fleeting and it’s easy to rely on because it requires no concentrated effort to get. Motivation comes to you, and you don’t have to chase after it.

Discipline is reliable, motivation is fleeting. The question isn’t how to keep yourself motivated. It’s how to train yourself to work without it ».

If you want to be motivated to train, stop it and stop crying. It’s better to build a system that isn’t relied on motivation. Create a system like the cyclists virtual avatar, create an avatar of your last week performances. Don’t be relied on inspiration but build a system for success, a system that improve your abilities each week.

Sometimes, we need people to push us, challenge us to do things we don’t want to do to go to the next level.

Surround yourself with people better than you in your activites. More you do activities with people who have more experience than you, more you become better.

And sometimes, you need a technological assistance to buid these habits :

  • Self-Control to block time-wasting website on our computer

  • Rescue time to track our efficiency

  • Alarm clocks across the room

Did you see ? No ones of these exemples are relied on a motivation, will or be better than someone else. It’s external forces that we use to exceed our limits.

Outworked

Imagine what you can accomplish if failure isn’t an option. McClusky make a theory in his book « the winner is the athlete for whom defeat is the least acceptable rationalization ». So people who want to do everything to achieve their goals almost always accomplish theirs goals.

Watch this Will Smith’s video .

« The only thing that I see that is distinctly different about me is I’m not afraid to die on a treadmill. I will not be out-worked, period. You might have more talent than me, you might be smarter than me, you might be sexier than me, you might be all of those things you got it on me in nine categories.

But if we get on the treadmill together, there’s two things: You’re getting off first, or I’m going to die. It’s really that simple, right ? »

This is why Will Smith is one of the most successful actors.

Of times in our quest when we don’t make sacrifice to succeed, we fall into the belief that accomplishing our goal isn’t possible.

In fact, this rationalisation may appear to several people event before trying !

Instead of rebuking yourself when you aren’t motivated to do exercice or that you struggle to eat healthy, take a step back and look it with a different angle :

  • « how can you build a habit of success and be focus on rather than seeking a motivation to realize it ? »

It’s easy to become ensnared (to chase motivation and fail) or to rationalize inaction and never try. We all fell into the trap.

What is you plan to avoid this trap ?

-Steph

P.S. Do you want a free training program ? Click here 

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Alcohol And Sports

alcohol Sport

10 beers = 2 training days lost ! I discovered new information that I want to share with you because it’s really important.

Alcohol and testosterone

alcohol Sport

A study was done for 3 weeks with people who drank three beers a day. The result is that testosterone rate decline of 6.8 %. It’s not extraordinary but drink 3 beers per day is an important dosage.

The conclusion is that drink a beer per day or 2-3 beers in the weekend has almost no effect on testosterone rate.

Another study was done on one day with people who drank 10 beers (the party). The result is that testosterone rate decrease of 23 % for 16 hours (it’s long) ! This means that if you’re going after a workout to party, your workout for the day is lost because you will not be recovered. Why ? Because you lack of a lot of testosterone and you have an increase of cortisol, which is a catabolic hormone. There is a problem !

The studies links :

Study 1

Study 2

Alcohol and progression

alcohol Sport

These 2 studies have shown us that drink a small amount / moderate, no worries and excessive, problem. But it’s not just alcohol, it’s everything that goes with it.

Usually you start drinking in the evening so you go to bed late. And when you drink alcohol, you eat badly, too fat, too sweet, pizza, cookies (junk food). In addition, often you mix alcohol with soft drinks (soda or fruit juice). Soft drinks brings a lot of calories with calories from alcohol. You know that 1 gram of alcohol is 7kcal ! That’s more calories than carbohydrates, so it’s been a lot of calories.

Besides some not strong alcohol such as red wine, alcohol is empty calories as white sugar ! it doesn’t bring anything to the body and finally, it dehydrates. In summary, it causes increased fatigue, poor diet and dehydration, making poor recovery.

The training you did during the day is lost and you lose also the next day if you drank 10 beers, you had a bad meal, slept badly, poorly recovered and you’re not in shape. In addition if you drink until 5-6 am and you traine early in the afternoon, there is a good chance you’re still half drunk and you risk to do something wrong (poor concentration, poor technique, fatigue, dehydration), which increases the risk of injury.

1 night of excessive alcohol = 2 days of lost training

I saw this info 1 month ago and I can tell you that it made me think. All times I’ve been drinking rum (sometimes I vomit) and I went to train in half drunk thinking that it will make me clean faster (when I could because sometime , hahahhha). This is serious, to do simpler when I know it’s a crazy party, I don’t train for two days (saturday-sunday) and you’re going to do what ?

-Steph

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Higher Level

higher level

June 1, I increased the level of my training program. I increased 4 kg (8.8 lbs) all exercises (except those which I couldn’t do 4 sets of 10 reps clean). Well do all of my sets with 6 repetitions.

Exercises I couldn’t do 4 sets of 10 repetitions clean, I kept the same weight and I do 5 sets of 6 reps to work well the techniques. For the rest, it’s 4 sets of 6 reps.

Squat and Romanian deadlift have a different periodization. Now I’m to 4 sets of 10 repetitions at 110 kg (242 lbs). I increased 2 repetitions.

higher level

34kg (74 lbs) for the dumbbells incline bench press, it changes many sensations, during 6 months I lifted the same weight. Every 2 months I added 2 reps, I was getting used to. What’s cool is that I can lift the weight alone, without help. 36kg (79 lbs) for dumbbells bench; 75kg (165 lbs) for one arm lat pulldown; 100kg (220 lbs) for one leg Leg Press; a dumbbell of 30kg (66 lbs) for the decline crunch and decline twist crunch .

I am happy with myself, I have prepared my body to be able to come there. What fun is that my training time is shorter and I feel I can do more but later in the day, I’m hits by a stronger fatigue than usual and there I told myself that I am trained. My body is being reorganized to adapt to this new training. I think I have to be careful with my sleeping hours to really recover.

Right now, I weigh 78kg (171 lbs) with a 8% bodyfat, I focus on my body symmetry, my body aesthetic. 2 last summers, I liked the walk without t-shirt in parks (show off, show off, show off) but this year I don’t want to do it. I want to improve my body as I do an update for a software. People tell me that my body is better than last summer but their compliments make me anything. I know my body can be better and I will.

higher level

It’s special now, the weather is fine, I wear T-shirt and when I hear people comment (wow, he is muscular, did you see his shoulders, etc.), it annoys me ! I’m a discret person, I have always been discreet. I’m not looking to have problems with someone, I do my stuff and I’m not talking. I had too many stories where jealous people broke my plans, that’s why I say nothing now.

When you work hard on a project, after a time you can’t hide because results are there and nobody can contest them, that’s what life is beautiful. I just need to get used to these comments and I simply ignores them. Knowing me, I’ll ignore them because the majority of people who say these comments have a worse physics than mine.

You want my advice, listen only people who are better than you in your domain. This is the only way to be better than yesterday and even become better than them. Being better than the person you admire, that’s motivation. Yeah, that’s what I want !

And you want ? Do you want to become better than people you admire ?

-Steph

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Niveau Supérieur

higher level

Le 1 juin, j’ai augmenté le niveau de mon programme d’entraînement. J’ai augmenté de 4 kg (8.8 lbs) tous les exercices (sauf ceux où je n’arrivais pas à faire 4 séries de 10 reps propres). Ce qui fait que toutes mes séries sont à 6 répétitions.

Les exercices où je n’arrivais pas à faire 4 séries de 10 répétitions propres, j’ai gardé les même poids et je fais 5 séries de 6 répétitions pour bien travailler la techniques. Pour le reste, c’est 4 séries de 6 répétitions.

Le squat et le soulevé de terre roumain ont une périodisation différentes. Maintenant je suis à 4 séries de 10 répétions à 110 kg (242 lbs). J’ai augmenté de 2 répétitions.

higher level

Les haltères de 34kg (74 lbs) pour le développé couché incliné, ça change beaucoup les sensations, ça faisant 6 moins que je soulevais les mêmes poids. Tous les 2 mois j’augmentais de 2 répétitions, je commençais à être habitué. Ce qui est cool,c’est que j’arrive à soulevé les poids tout seul, sans aide. Les haltères de 36kg (79 lbs) pour le développé couché ; 75kg (165 lbs) pour le tirage poitrine à une main ; 100kg (220 lbs) pour le Leg Press à une jambe ; une haltère de 30kg (66 lbs) pour le crunch et le crunch twist décliné.

Je suis content de moi, j’ai bien préparé mon corps pour pouvoir y arrivé. Ce qui marrant, c’est que le temps de mon entraînement est plus court et j’ai l’impression de pouvoir en faire plus mais plus tard dans la journée, j’ai des coups de fatigue plus fortes que d’habitude et là je me dit que je me suis bien entraîné. Mon corps est en train de se réorganiser pour s’adapter à ce nouvelle entraînement. Je pense qu’il faut que je fasse attention à mes heures de sommeil pour vraiment récupérer.

En ce moment, je pèse 78kg avec un taux de graisse corporelle de 8 %, je me concentre sur la symétrie de me corps, l’esthétique de mon corps. Les 2 étés passé, j’aimais bien marché dans les parcs à torse nu (la frime, la frime, la frime) mais cette année, je n’ai pas envie de le faire. J’ai envie d’améliorer mon corps comme je fais une mise à jour pour un programme. Des gens me disent que mon corps est mieux que celui de l’été passé mais leurs compliments me font rien. Je sais que mon corps peut être mieux et je vais le faire.

higher level

C’est spécial, maintenant qu’il fait beau, je suis en T-shirt et quand j’entends les remarques des gens (wow, il est musclé, t’as vu ses épaules, etc.), ça m’énerve ! Je suis quelqu’un de discret, j’ai toujours été discret. Je cherche des problèmes à personne, je fais mes trucs et j’en parle pas. J’ai eu trop d’histoires où des jaloux ont cassé mes plans, c’est pour ça que je ne dis rien maintenant.

Quand tu travailles dur sur un projet, au bout d’un moment tu ne peux plus le cacher parce que les résultats sont là et personne ne peut les contester, c’est ça qui est beau avec la vie. Il faut juste que je m’habitue à ces commentaires ou que je les ignore tout simplement. Me connaissant, je vais les ignorer parce que la majorité des personnes qui disent ces commentaires ont un physique moins bien que mien.

Tu veux un conseil, écoute uniquement les personnes qui sont meilleurs que toi dans ton domaine. C’est le seul moyen pour être meilleur que hier et même devenir meilleur qu’eux. Etre meilleur que les personne que tu admire, ça c’est de la motivation. Ouais, c’est ce que je veux !

Et toi, tu veux devenir meilleur que les personnes que tu admires ?

-Steph

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