Dietary Fats

dietary, fat, oil, fish, avocado, nut, olive

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in nutrition to stay in shape. I read some advice from Arnold Schwarzenegger and I learned some good stuff.

Of the 3 macronutriments, fats are the nutrients that are the most dense in energy. Fat is composed of the same thing as carbohydrates (carbon, hydrogen and oxygen) but the difference is that the atoms are not linked together in the same way. Fat is in plants and animals. Oils are liquid fats. Fats are insoluble in water. Fats are organized in 3 categories:

  • Simple fats (triglycerides)
  • Compound fats (phospholipid, glucolipid, lipoprotein)
  • Derived fats (cholesterol)

Here are the 3 fat’s functions in your body:

  1. Fats are the main source of stored energy (body fat)
  2. Fats help to protect and cushion the major organs
  3. Fats have an insulator effect, preserving body heat and protecting against excessive cold.

Fat is the most dense nutrient in calories 1 pound (453gr) of fat contains 4000 calories while 1 pound (453gr) of protein or carbohydrate contains about 1800 calories.

When you do exercise and stay within your aerobic capacity, it means you don’t run out of breath, your body uses fats and carbohydrates as a source of energy at around 50/50. But if you continue, your body will use more fat than carbohydrates as a source of energy. If you train for 3 hours, your body can use fat to create 80% energy for your body.

As you could read, there is different type of fat: saturated, unsaturated and polyunsaturated. These terms mean the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the molecule. Here is an analogy with a string’s ball so that it’s easier to understand. Saturated fat is like a length of string in a messy clutter. Unsaturated is like a rope with some entanglements. And polyunsaturated is like a rope carefully wrapped without the sign of a tangle. The more fat is saturated (tangled), the more likely it’s to remain in the body and clog the arteries, which increase the risk of heart disease.

There are also other factors. Diets rich in saturated fat tend to increase cholesterol levels in the blood. Health experts advise that 2/3 of your fat intake is polyunsaturated fat.

Saturated fats are found in:

  • Beef
  • Lamb
  • Pork
  • Chicken
  • Shellfish
  • Egg yolks
  • Cream
  • Milk
  • Cheese
  • Butter
  • Vegetable shortening
  • Chocolate
  • Lard

Unsaturated fats are found in:

  • Avocados
  • Cashews
  • Olives and olive oil
  • Peanuts, peanuts oil, peanut butter

Polyunsaturated fats are found in:

  • Almonds
  • Cottonseed oil
  • Margarine (usually)
  • Pecans
  • Sunflower oil
  • Corn oil
  • Fish
  • Mayonnaise
  • Safflower oil
  • Soybean oil
  • Walnuts

Essential Fatty Acids

fatty, acid, saturated, unsaturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, omega,3,6,9,linolenic, linoleic, cla, gla, arachidonic, epa, dha, oleic, lauric, myristic,palmitic, stearic

Essential fatty acids are inevitable in a healthy diet because your body can’t create it itself- That’s why it’s essential that you eat foods containing essential fatty acids. It’s a shame because many bodybuilders have low fat diets and they develop deficiencies in dietary fat. Fortunately there are foods and supplements that provide “good fats” to avoid this extreme. Here are some examples:

Fish oil

Instead of eating low-fat fish, test salmon, trout or mackerel. Fish oil is needed by organs, especially the brain. You can also take fish oils as supplements.

Polyunsaturated vegetable oil

In vegetable oils, there are 2 acids that are valuable: linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Supermarket oils such as corn oil, sunflower oil and safflower oil don’t contain linoleic acid. Soybean oil is the only supermarket oil containing linoleic acid but you need ot pay attention to GMO. For linolenic acid, you can find that in linseed oil, walnut oil, pumpkin seed oil.

Monounsaturated fatty acids

There are the most harmless fatty acids compared to some polyunsaturated fatty acids because they don’t affect your cholesterol or your prostaglandins (regulators of the hormones action). Monounsaturated fatty acids are found in olive oil and macadamia nuts.

Supplements of fatty acid

These supplements contain essential fatty acids from fish oils and other sources.

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-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

Needs Of Bodybuilders

bodybuilder, bodybuiling, food, nutrition, ronnie, coleman,

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in nutrition to stay in shape. I read a Arnold Schwarzenegger’s book « Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding » and I learned some good stuff.

Bodybuilders are unique athletes in the demands they have with their body. They want a maximum of muscle mass and a minimum of fat at the same time. For football, strongman or weightlifter athletes, they have a workout program to maximize the size and strength of the musles without worrying about reducing bodyfat. For boxing, wrestling or gymnastics athletes, they have a workout program that has allowed them to lose fat to be lean without really needing a diet to reduce bodyfat.

For bodybuilding competitions, bodybuilders must achieve a bodyfat level of 15-18% for women and 5-8% for men.

To learn constantly

bodybuilder, bodybuiling, food, nutrition, nutritionist, science

Bodybuilders have a small margin of error. They eat enough calories to grow muscles and they must be able to reduce their bodyfat by losing the minimum amount of muscle to be shredded. They can use aerobic exercise to burn the extra calories but it doesn’t have to deteriorate the strength training.

Bodybuidlers need to control calories by being careful to have enough protein to build and maintain muscles. Nutrition is complex and this science has a constant evolution. That’s why nutritionists teach us new things every day.

Fortunately, there are basic principles of nutrition that are implanted and mastering these fundamentals is essential for a bodybuilder to fully utilize his/her genetic potential for his/her physical development.

Subscribe to my newsletter and share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

Overuse Injuries

overuse injuries sport injury

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

There are 2 types of injuries : Acute injuries and overuse injuries. Acute injuries are usually caused by a single traumatic event. Here are some examples :

  • Wrist fractures

  • Ankle sprains

  • Shoulder dislocations

Acute injuries are less common in sport than overuse injuries. Overuse injuries are usually subtle and appear over time, making them difficult to diagnose and treat. Here is some example :

  • Tennis elbows

  • Swimmer’s shoulder

  • Pitcher’s elbow

  • Runner’s knee

  • Achilles tendinitis

  • Shin splints

Why

Human body is extraordinary to adapt to physical stress. We’re used of thinking that « stress » is bad for our emotional well-being, but physical stress is simply doing an exercise or activity. This is beneficial for our muscles, tendons, ligaments and bones. This physical stress causes an internal process called remodeling. Remodeling process involves both the breakdown and the build up of tissue. It’s necessary to have a good balance between 2, if breakdown occurs more rapidly than buildup, an overuse injury occurs.

Causes

overuse injuries sport injury gym fail

Usually, it’s training errors that cause overuse injuries. These errors are too fast acceleration of intensity or duration or activity frequency. These injuries can also happen to people who return to the sport/activity after an injury. They try to make up for lost time as quickly as possible to reach the level they had before the injury. Doing an exercise with a good technique is important to avoid overuse injuries. When the exercise’s technique is bad, it creates overuse injuries. It’s for this reason that coaches, athletic trainers and teachers can play a preventive role so that athletes avoid overuse injures.

There are people who more easily have overuse injuries. An unbalance between strength and flexibility around certain joints predisposes some people to have this type of injury. Body alignment, such as knock-knees, bowlegs, unequal leg lengths and flat or high arched feet, also impact overuse injuries. There are also people who have weak links because of old wounds, incomplete rehabilitation of wounds or others anatomy factors.

Other factors must also be taken into account as equipment such as the type of running shoe or ballet shoe and terrain (hard versus soft surface in aerobic dance or running).

Diagnosis

Generally the diagnosis is based on the athlete’s history and physical examination. It’s recommended to make a diagnosis with a sports medicine specialist with a specific interest and knowledge of your sport. In some situations X-rays, bone scan and MRI may be necessary.

Treatment

overuse injuries sport injury ice

Here are some recommendations for treating an overuse injuries :

  • Cutting back the intensity, duration and frequency of an activity

  • Adopting a hard/easy workout schedule and crosstraining with other activities to maintain fitness levels

  • Learning about proper training and technique from a coach or athletic trainer

  • Performing proper warm-up activities before and cool down after

  • Using ice after an activity for minor aches and pain

  • Using anti-inflammatory medications as necessary

If symptoms persist, a sport medicine specialist may create a more detailed treatment plan for your specific condition. This may involve an exam of your training program and an evaluation of predisposing factors.

Prevention

Majority of overuse injuries can be avoided with a proper training program, common sense and learning to listen your own body. The quote : « No pain, no gain » doesn’t apply here. The 10% rule helps a lot to get things to the next level.

In general, you should increase the training’s intensity to a maximum of 10% per week. This allows your body to have enough time for recovery and response. This rule should be used to increase pace or milestone for walkers or runners. Or for the weights amount to increase for strength training programs. In strength training, add flexibility exercises and core stability exercises help tremendously to minimize overuse injuries.

It’s recommended to seek advice from sports medicine specialist or athletic trainer to prevent chronic or recurring problems. Your training program can also be modified to maintain fitness levels safety while you recover from your injuries. You must return to the sport only if an authorization is granted by a health professional.

Remember, it’s very important to warm-up before training and cool down after training.

Stats

3.5 millions of children are treated for overuse injures every year.

Subscribe to my newsletter and share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food. Click here .

Bridge

bridge anatomy

I read a Frederic Delavier’s book « Strength Training Anatomy » and I learned good stuff.

bridge anatomy

Lie on your back with your hands flat on the floor. Your arms along your body with your knees bent :

  • Inhale and lift your buttocks from the floor by pushing hard on your feet

  • Maintain the position 2 seconds and go down your pelvis without touching the floor.

  • Exhale and start again.

This exercise mainly works hamstrings and gluteus maximus.

This movement is to be done with sets of high reps because the goal is to feel the contraction at the end of every repetition.

Note

Easy and effective, this exercise is very popular in aerobics classes.

Variant

Bench bridge :

bench bridge anatomy

Lie on your back with your hands flat on the floor. Your arms along your body with your thighs vertical and your feet on the bench :

  • Inhale and lift your buttocks from the floor by pushing hard on your feet

  • Maintain the position 2 seconds and go down your pelvis without touching the floor.

  • Exhale and start again.

This exercise works gluteus maximus and especially hamstrings because hamstrings works more here than bridge on the floor.

This movement is to be done slowly, the main thing is to feel the muscles contraction. Sets of 10 to 15 reps give better results.

With calves on the bench, you’ll work even more intensely your harmstings with gastrocnemius muscles.

You can also do this movement with a small amplitude without touch your buttocks on the floor and looking for the burning sensation.

Share this article if you thing it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

Back To The Source Of Human Strength (Part 1)

source

I read a Nerd Fitness article  and I learned good stuff.

When I’m in gym, people tell me why they started to train. There are several reasons, lose weight, gain muscles or to be in shape for a special event. There is a golden rule to have result in strength training, it’s eat clean and lift heavy.

Everybody says it, eat clean and lift heavy but what does that means ? I think it’s time to go back to the source.

Why

why

The life is easier when we’re stronger, did you notice it ? By exemple, to carry bags from supermarket, to carry a piece of furniture, to run to be in time, etc. Everything is easier.

Strength training is extremely efficient to build muscle and burn fat. Whether to lose 6kg (15lbs) or 45kg (100lbs), it’s the same thing.

Strength training help to build muscle and lose fat but it also help to stop or even reverse sarcopenia (it’s skeletal muscle reduction with aging). Train our skeletal muscle allow us to be independant (therefore avoid nursing homes) and live longer.

The profits list isn’t finished yet.

A nice athletic body

Strength training help you keep your muscles while you’re in calories deficience and losing weight.

Strength training allows you to have a better oxygen consumption than aerobic exercices. After training your body needs to make a lot of efforts to recover and return to the normal state so the state you had before the training. Scientific studies have shown that your metabolism‘s level increase for 38 hours after your training.

Strength training increase your metabolism, increase your Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) because your body needs more calories to keep your muscls than to keep your fat. It’s estimated that for each 4.45kg (1lbs) of muscle, your RMR increase of 30-35 calories.

Improve your health

Strength training help you to improve your balance and coordination, improve cholesterol’s rate, help to control blood sugar, stop muscle loss, improve blood flow, reduces your resting blood pressure, build a stronger heart and increase bone density.

Feel better

It’s clear with strength training you have more self-confidence, your have more energy, a better mood, less anxiety and less stress . It also improves the quality of your thoughts, a scientific study has shown that this increases the cognitive function .

It’s not advisable to do a strength training 1 hour before sleeping. On the other hand to train early in the day helps to prevent sleep apnea  and insomnia.

Prevents diseases and degenerative diseases

You notices that many men and women die because of cardiac disease. Stength training helps to solve problems that are factors of heart disease such as inactivity, diabets, obesity, high blood pressure and cholesterol. Cardiologists begin to advise strength training to people who have heart attack.

Strength training helps to manage and improve the lifestyle of people with clinical depression , cancer survivors , have had a spinal cord injury ,who have recently had a stroke , fibromyalgia , Lymphedema , Down Syndrome , Parkinson’s Disease , Osteoporosis  and Arthritis.

It’s fun

Strenght training helps to reach your goals whether an effective training of 20 minutes to have a good naked body or to do a sports competition. It’s fun to see our progress because it’s like increase level in a video game. If you want to be better in a sport like badminton or rock climbing, strength training is a good choice.

People who shouldn’t train

The only people I’ve found who shouldn’t train are people who have an injury and it’s a break that doesn’t last long. We’re human being and it’s natural to carry things and move. Strength training is recommended for pregnant women , children and teenagers  and even paraplegics .

Obviously, it recommanded to see his/her doctor before beginning a strength training program to adjust the training program.

Basic objections

objection

But I’m too old, it’s not reasonable

When people between 30 and 60 years old tell me that they’re too old, I laugh because it’s a lie. It’s like say : « I don’t have time » and later I see a messsage on Facebook like : « Yestersay, Game of the thrones was epic ! ». Scientific studies have shown that people between 70 and 90 years old had impressive results in 10 weeks .

Other scientific studies have shown that this helps to avoid dementia  and to delay Alzheimer’s .

People who think they’re too old to train are exactly people who should train.

But I just want to be better for a sport and I want to stay fit

Strength training improve your muscle’s endurance, scientific studies have shown it. Resistance exercices help to increases overall muscles endurance , fix nervous system problems and increase activation of motor units within your muscles.

I don’t want to bulk too much

It’s a great strength training’s myth, it’s not in 1 year than you’ll have the bodybuilder’s body no matter wheteher you’re a man or a woman.

For women, here 2 exemples of moms who have become strong and fit without having a bodybuilder body. This is the story of Veronica  and Bronwyn .

Have a the body of a famous bodybuilder doesn’t happen in one night. Naturally we don’t have the amount of homones to have the body of a famous bodybuilder. We need to eat a huge amount of food (8 000 – 10 000 calories per day) and a huge amont of drugs (no, no, it’s another type of pharmacy, it’s true).

I’m fat, I want only lose weight

I’m fat, I want only lose weight

It’s a good reason to start strenght training. By losing weight, you surely want to keep your muscles. I mean, yout want to keep your muscles while you lose fat. With strength training you lose quickly centimeters (inches) in different body’s parts. It’s true that the overall weight loss may seem slow, that’s why is important to track your measurements. With strenght training when you eat with a caloric deficit, it’s increase your metabolism so you lose fat.

It’s boring

What I like with strength training, it’s we can see our progress quickly. It’s like increase level in a video game. I think people get bored when they expect nothing to do between 2 sets. This is why I advise people to have headphones to listen to their own music selection or an audio book to increase motivation.

Muscles and strength training

muscle fiber

Don’t be fancy, it’s interesting to understand how our muscles work to avoid failling into the Matrix’s trap. What I mean is that the only person you gave to impress is yourself and not the others.

It’s our muscle fibers that are small muscle cells that build up our muscles. Our muscle fibers are long, cylindrical and have the size of a strand of hair. Our muscle fibers are composed of myofibrils surrounded by sarcoplasm. I really summarized that but if you want to see it in detail, click here .

We have around 642 skeletal muscles that work together to make move our body. Imagine, when you bend your arm, your biceps contracts and your triceps does the opposite (elongates) to let the elbow bend. Every muscle of your body work as a team to make you move.

We have different type of muscle fibers :

Slow twitch (Type 1 fibers)

Slow twitch fibers are used to convert oxygen into energy for a long period of time. They don’t move quickly to be resistant to fatigue. These are the fibers we use most for marathons.

Fast twitch (Type 2 fibers)

Fast twitch move quickly so they’re not resistant to fatigue. Our body has 2 categories of fast fibers. The type 2A fiber has an endurence characterisitc used for long sprints. The type 2X fiber has « super fast » characterisitc used to short sprints or lift weights. I really summarized that but if you want to see it in detail, click here .

Each individual has a different percentage of slow and fast fibers. It’s for this reason that people are naturally better to run long distances or sprints. It’s funny because we can see it in strength training with people who are better to do sets with high or low repetitions.

It’s the end of the first part and the second part is event more interessting.

Share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

-Steph

P.S. To read Part 2, click here.

Histoire Du Fitness – Etats-Unis – Les années 1960 (Part 13)

united states 1960

Le président John F. Kennedy était un un partisan majeur du fitness et de ses avantages lié à la santé pour les citoyens des Etats-Unis. Il poursuivit le Conseil Présidentiel de la Remise En Forme de la Jeunesse en nommant Bud Wilkinson en tant que chef du conseil. Le nom a également été changé pour le Conseil Présidentiel sur la Condition Physique. Kennedy a parlé ouvertement de la nécessité pour les citoyens des Etat-Unis d’améliorer leurs niveaux de condition physique y compris avec la rédaction d’un article écrit dans le magazine « Sport Illustrated » titré « l’américain faible ». Il a dit : « Nous sommes sous-exercé en tant que nation, nous regardons le sport à la place de le faire, nous utilisons un véhicule au lieu de marcher ». Kennedy a incité le gouvernement fédéral à s’impliquer davantage dans la promotion de la remise en forme nationale et a lancé des programmes pilotes de conditionnement physique pour les enfants. L’engagement de Kennedy pour le fitness peut être résumé par une phrase qu’il a dit : « La forme physique est la base de toutes autres formes d’excellence ».

Dr. Ken H. Cooper, largement reconnu comme le « Père du mouvement du fitness moderne », est généralement connu pour encourager davantage de personnes à s’exercer que n’importe quelle autres individu dans l’histoire. Cooper a préconisé une philosophie qui a délaissé le traitement de la maladie par la prévention de la maladie. « Il est plus facile de maintenir une bonne santé grâce à l’exercice, le régime alimentaire et l’équilibre émotionnel que de la retrouver une fois qu’elle est perdu », il a dit. Tôt dans sa carrière, Cooper a souligné la nécessité de fournir des données épidémiologiques pour soutenir les avantages des exercices réguliers et de la santé. Les données provenant de milliers d’individus sont devenu la fondation pour son concept aérobic. L’aérobic sorti en 1968 a envoyé un puissant message aux citoyens des Etats-Unis – pour empêcher le développement de maladies chroniques, il faut faire des exercices réguliers et maintenir un haut niveau de condition physique tout au long de la vie. Le message, les programmes et les idées du Dr. Cooper ont créé le modèle à partir duquel le fitness à proliféré jusqu’à l’époque moderne.

Les Leçons de l’Histoire

history

L’histoire du fitness dépeint des thèmes fascinants qui sont étroitement liées au 21e siècle. Un point commun est la forte association de la puissance militaire et la politique avec la condition physique tout au long de l’avancement de l’humanité. De plusieurs façons, cela montre l’impact que nos leaders mondiaux peuvent avoir sur la santé et le fitness.

Le concept esprit-corps a eu un développement précaire. Parfois certaines cultures prescrivent la spiritualité au détriment du corps alors que d’autres, tels que la société grecque, a confirmé l’idée qu’un esprit sain peut seulement être dans un corps sain.

Un autre développement intéressant de l’histoire est le concept de l’exercice pour le corps et de la musique pour l’âme. Les programmes de conditionnement physique de nos jours ont fait évoluer ce concept harmonieusement, la musique est devenu un élément distinctif pour l’expérience de l’exercice.

Il semble que les sociétés deviennent trop épris de la richesse, la prospérité et l’auto-divertissement ce qui fait que les niveaux de conditionnement physique baissent. En outre comme la technologie a progressé avec l’homme , les niveaux de condition physique ont diminué. Ainsi, ceci est une résolution avec lequel nous mettons aux défis les sociétés aujourd’hui :Peut-être en utilisant toutes les recherches approfondies sur la santé et le fitness en combinaison avec les esprits créatifs de l’industrie du fitness d’aujourd’hui, nous pouvons maintenant résoudre cette partie du puzzle du fitness.

C’est la fin de notre voyage dans le temps. Personnellement j’ai appris beaucoup de choses et je vois le fitness différemment (ça change du délire Photoshop). J’espère que cela a été pareil pour toi.

-Steph

Histoire Du Fitness – Etats-Unis – Les années folles des années 1920 et la Grande Dépression (Part 11)

united states roaring twenties

L’intérêt accru dans le fitness s’est dissipé pendant toute la décennie. Un même schéma se répète toujours dans l’histoire de l’humanité après qu’une guerre soit gagné. C’est que la société se relaxe, profite de la vie et fait moins d’exercices. Les années folles des années 1920 ont gagné ce nom à cause de cette raison, la société était la plus frivole que n’importe quelle autre dans l’histoire jusqu’à maintenant. Les priorités étaient manger, boire, faire la fête et d’autres formes de divertissements.

En Octobre 1929, le crash de la bourse a signalé le début d’une décennie de dépression économique. L’économie n’a pas réussi à se rétablir jusqu’à ce que les Etats-Unis entre dans la Seconde Guerre Mondiale en 1941. Avec de nombreuses autres aspects de la vie, les niveaux de conditionnements physiques ont diminué au cours de la Grande Dépression. Les bénéfices que les programmes d’éducation physique ont fait à grâce à la législation qui ont suivi la Première Guerre Mondiale étaient de courtes durées. Les fonds pour ces programmes ont été limité et ont finalement été épuisé à cause de la faiblesse de l’économie.

united states roaring twenties

Malgré les contretemps qu’a subi le fitness durant le Grande Dépression, Jack LaLanne, qui finit par être reconnu comme un pionnier du fitness moderne a commencé sa carrière comme un médiatique instructeur de conditionnement physique. Tout au long de sa vie, LaLanne a prêché les valeurs du style de vie du fitness. Dans les années 1950, le « Jack LaLanne Show » a commencé à être diffusé à la télévision, 25 ans avant les shows de Richard Simmons et de Jane Fonda. LaLanne a développé des programmes de fitness incluant l’aérobic, l’aérobic aquatique et les exercices de résistance. Il a aussi présenté de nombreuse pièces d’équipement d’exercice incluant la première machine à câble, le système sécurisé pour faire du squat appelé la « Machine Smith » et la première machine « Leg extension » pour l’extension des jambes. Bien que LaLanne soit souvent nommé comme l’inventeur du mouvement « Jumping Jack », l’histoire suggère que le vrai inventeur était John « Black Jack » Pershing, un officier tactique de West Point dans la Première Guerre Mondiale. Bien que LaLanne ait précédé les mouvements du fitness moderne de trois décennies, son idéologie et ses programmes d’exercices de conditionnements physique avait une bonne approche comme ont démontré les recherches modernes.

Deuxième Guerre Mondiale

A travers l’histoire du monde, les conflits militaire ont eu une impact majeur sur l’état de la condition physique. La Seconde Guerre Mondiale et ses conséquences sur les Etats-Unis n’ont pas été différent. Essentiellement, le mouvement du fitness moderne a évolué sous l’influence de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale et de la Guerre Froide.

world war 2

Les Etats-Unis sont entré dans la Seconde Guerre Mondiale avec le bombardement de Perl Harbor le 7 décembre 1941. Avec cette déclaration de guerre, il était venu la nécessité de préparer des soldats. Cependant dans le recrutement, il était devenu embarrassant de constaté que beaucoup de personnes étaient inaptes au combat. Quand la guerre a été terminé, il a été reporté que presque la moitié des personnes préparés auraient dû être refusé ou avoir une position de non-combat. Ces statistiques inquiétantes ont aidé à gagner plus d’attention sur l’importance du fitness dans le pays.

Il y a eu d’importantes contributions dans le fitness durant les années 1940, spécialement du Dr. Thomas K. Cureton de l’Université de l’Illinois. Cureton a introduit l’application de la recherche dans le conditionnement physique, ce qui a amélioré les recommandations d’exercices aux particuliers. Cureton n’a pas seulement reconnu les nombreux bénéfices de l’exercice régulier, il cherchait à étendre les connaissance du corps humain avec l’aide du fitness. Il voulait répondre à des questions telles que « combien d’exercices pour être en bonne santé ? » et quels types d’exercices étaient les plus efficaces. Mais le plus important était que Cureton voulait savoir comment la condition physique pourrait être mieux mesuré sur un individu. Parmi ses contributions, les plus importantes étaient le développement de test de conditionnement physique pour l’endurance cardiorespiratoire, la force musculaire et la flexibilité. Ses recherches ont abouti sur plusieurs recommandations pour l’amélioration de la condition cardiorespiratoire, y compris l’identification de l’intensité d’exercice nécessaire pour améliorer les niveaux de condition physique. Ses suggestions sont devenues la base fondamentale de programmes d’exercices futures.

C’est tout pour aujourd’hui. Bientôt la suite de l’histoire du fitness

-Steph