Stress Fractures

stress. fractures, tibia, fibula

What’s up ? This is THE stephane ANDRE. With my training, I’m interested in biomechanics to avoid injuries. I read « Sport Medicine Media Guide » and I learned some good stuff.

A stress fracture is an overuse injury. Human body creates a new bone to replace a bone that has been broken due to the stress of everyday life. This process is done every day to keep the balance. Unfortunately, this balance can be disrupted because of excessive physical training. There are several factors that can prevent the body from creating enough bone and this make microcracking, called « fracture stress ».

The most common factor of fracture stress is an excessive increase in the intensitiy or frequency of physical activity without adequate rest period. Other factors are nutritional deficiencies, mechanical influences, lack of sleep, systemic factors (hormonal imbalance, etc.) and metabolic bone disorders.

There are case of development of eating disorders and/or amenorrhea (infrequent menstrual periods) for some female athletes who are preparing for a competition. These 2 conditions can create a decrease in estrogen that can decrease bone mineral density. This increase the risk of stress fractures.

Stress fractures are often seen in athletes (especially runners) or military recruiting. For an athlete, 1.6km run is 110 tons of force absorbed by the legs. Bones aren’t made to resist this force (energy) so it’s the muscles that have the function of absorbing shocks.

When the muscles get tired, they stop absorbing the forces and eveything transferred to the bones. Stress fractures occur in almost all bones but are more common in lower bone, expecially the tibia. Depending on the type of sport, there’re distinctive stress fractures such as the elbow in throwing sports, the ribs in golfing and rowing, the spine in gymnastics, the lower extremity in running activities and the foot in gymnastics and bascketball.


stress, fracture, foot, metatarsal, 5th
stress, fracture, foot, x-rays, metatarsal,2nd

Stress fractures create pain in a limited area directly above the tip of the bone where the fracture occurred. The pain is raw because of physical activity and relived with rest. The sensitivity of the bones is the most obvious conclusion to the physical examination.

With regard to X-rays, this isn’t a tool that actually helps to diagnose an early stress fracture because the bone often looks normal and the microcracking aren’t visible. It’s difficult because after several weeks of rest, the bone begins to repair itself and shows a healing reaction or callus on X-rays.

An early stress fracture is usually confirmed by a bone scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).


Stress fractures are generally classified as low-risk (will not become a serious fracture) or high-risk (will become a serious fracture).

Low-risk stress fractures usually require a rest period of 1-6 weeks of limited weight bearing activity progressing to full weight bearing may be necessary. Return to physical activity should be a gratual process.

Low impact activities like swimming or biking are recommended to maintain cardiovascular condition when the pain is gone. When the patient can comfortably perform low impact activities for long, pain-free periods, the patient can begin high-impact activities.

High-risk stress fracture have the danger of becoming a complete fracture. For athletes suffering from chronic pain and having normal x-rays results, it’s recommanded to use a bone scan or MRI. High-risk stress fractures should be treated as traumatic fractures (with cast or surgery) because of complications.


food, vitamin,d, carrot, papay, meat, ,egg, chees, broccoli, fish, sweet, potato, mango, pepperoni, apricot, peach, melon, avocado
calcium, food, almond, amarant, grain, aparagus, apricot, artichoke, baked, bean, haricot, blackberry, blackstrap, molasse, blackcurrant, bok, choy, brazil, nut, bread, wholemeal, brocolly, chickpeas, cinnamon, edamame, soya, fennel, kale, kidney, olive, orange, sesame, seed, milk, spring, green, tofu, swede, walnut, watercress

Here are tips developed by AAOS to help to prevent stress fractures :

  • When an athete does a new sport activity, it’s necessary to program progressive goals. For example on the 1st day, don’t run 8km but rather increase the distance gradually per week.
  • Cross-training => Alternate activities to achieve the same fitness goal helps to avoid stress fracture injuries. For example to achieve a cardiovascular goal, alternate cycling and running (cycling one day and riding the other day) is excellent. Adding strength training and doing flexibility exercises help improve performance.
  • Have and maintain a heathy diet with foods rich in calcium and vitamin D.
  • Use good equipment. Don’t use running shoes, gloves, etc, very old and very worn.
  • If during physical activity it start to swell or the pain starts, stop the activity right away. It’s essential to rest for a few days. If the pain continue, you should see an orthopedic surgeon.
  • It’s important to recognize early symptoms and treat them appropriately to return to the sport with a normal level of play.


  • Stress fractures occur less frequently in those of black African descent than in Caucasians, due to a generally higher BMD (bone mineral densitiy) in the former.
  • Women and highly active individuals are also at a higher risk, The incidence probably also increases with age due to age-related reductions in BMD.
  • Children may also be at risk because their bones have yet to reach full density and strength.
  • The female athlete triad also can put women at risk, as disordered eating and osteoporosis can cause the bones to be severely weakened.

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P.S. If you’re in Miami and you like Caribbean food, go to my cousin’s bistro to eat Haitian food, click here .

Find The Gym For Your Goals (Part 1)

radar dragon ball

I read a Nerd Fitness article  and I learned good stuff.

The gym can become an important part in your life. For this reason is important to choose your gym well otherwise you will become bitter.

It’s not necessary to train in a gym to gain strength or to have a good physical condition. You can do a bodyweight workout program at home (bedroom, garage or basement).

But if you really want an athletic body, you need to have equipment like barbells or dumbbells. It’s possible that you don’t have place or resources to create your home gym (like me), so the best option is to have a gym membership.

Discover really what you want


Don’t do the mistake to have a gym membership in the closest gym to your home. Think about your goals.

Make a list of things you need in a gym and make the difference between « must have » and « would be nice to haves ».


I wrote an article in 2 parts about this topic (click here link ). Imagine you have a workout program based on barbell, you need to check this :

  • Olympic barbell

  • Power rack (or at least a squat rack)

  • Dumbells up to 45-68kg (100-150lbs) or heavier if you want to do a dumbell training over barbell

  • Pullup bar/Dip station

  • Flat bench with racks for the bench press


Gyms offer free classes for their members like kickboxing, dance fitness, stationary bike or yoga. This is helpful for beginners, don’t hesitate to try one.


Some gyms offer good anemities like child care, a zone only for women ( my sister came one time in my gym and she said that men stared at her too much) or dry cleaning.

An environment to be focus

For me the gym has an important part in my day. When I train at home, I know I’ll be bothered by my rommates. I find it easier to concentrate when I’m at the gym with my headphones. When I’m at the gym it’s « my time » to me, I’m in my bubble. Everything about home, school, work doesn’t exist. The only thing is important is my workout.


Gyms have coaches available to help you improve your technique or workout program. From time to time it’s pratical.


A « must have » rule can be you can bring your childen at gym. I don’t have children but it looks cool for people who have children. Some gyms don’t allow to do deadlift and have vibram  so check if rules match with what you want to do.

A gym membership can be a long-term commitment so look at these points :

  • If you do a workout program based on dumbbells like me, be sure that dumbbells up to 45-68kg (100-150lbs) or heavier

  • If you think you’ll do the Olympic lift, look for bumper plates and a gym that lets you drop the weight.

  • If you think you’ll try kickboxing or yoga later, check that the gym has this type of classes.



During my travels, I saw gym membership between $9.- and $365.- per month. In Europe, it’s on average EUR 50.- per month but it depends on the area where you live and the amenities offered.

It’s useless to take the most expensive price thinking that you’ll have everything you need in the gym (I already did this mistake). It’s for this reason I’m writing this article to help you to find the best gym at the best price according to your need.

Also think of the usual thing like the towel. Imagine you go to a gym that offer a towel’s service. You know it and you think it’s great, you don’t nee to bring your towel. One day, you go to train at the gym at lunch and the staff tell you that there is no more towels available. It’s annoying.

Apart from the equipement, there are services that are important to know if the gym offer them or not :

Events offer or trips with discounts. Imagine that the gym organizes a hiking trip and member pay only 20.-. I agree, it’s not an incredible discount but during the hiking trip you’ll able to meet people who work to improve their health like you.

A child care service during your workouts. It’s possible that you have to pay an extra of $20.- or $30.- per month. I don’t have children but it looks pratical.

Free classes including yoga that is great for relaxing muscles. I prefer Tai-Chi but there is no this class in gyms.

Location and hours


Having a gym that is close to your house and your school/workplace is an interesting place.

By exemple, if you gym is close of your school/workplace, it’s cool. But the problem is that if you school/workplace is at a distance of 1 hour from you home, you’ll never train on weekends.

There is something I forgot to tell you in gym’s rules. There are gyms that close at 23h (11pm) and I know some gyms don’t allow their members to start their workout after 22:15 (10:15pm). If you work late in the night or during the night, it’s better to look for a gym open 24/7.

It’s important to choose a gym according to your willpower :

  • Imagine you want to train before you go to school/workplace. You do it because you want to train immediately to avoid not training all day or because when you wake up, you’re groggy and train give you energy for the whole day ?

  • Imagine you want to train after your school/workplace. You do it because you don’t have time to train during the day ? Be carefull because if you’re the type of person who is very tired after school/workplacle, you’ll find excuses to cancel your training. I meet everyday people like this.

An ideal location is to find a gym located between your home and your school/workplace. If you can do this, you’ll save time and money. I can’t do that but it’s really effective.

Note : It’s better to pay a little bit more for a gym that you use several times a week than pay less for a gym that you use from time to time. Don’t be fancy.

Share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.

P.S. To read the Part 2, click here .


Back To The Source Of Equipment (Part 2)

source water river

I read a Nerd Fitness articles  and I learned good stuff.

If you didn’t read the part 1, click here

Racks Et Machines

To do squat, there are differents equipements, we name it « racks ». Let’s go.

Squat stands

squat stands

It’s 2 pieces standing, next to each other to hold the Olympic bar. It’s handy because it’s portable and you can do squat outside. But in a gym, it’s not great because you can’t put heavy weights, it’s too fragile.

Squat rack

squat rack

It’s 2 bars that are standing tied with horizontal bars. With the Squat racks, you can put heavy weights.

Power rack

power rack

It’s my favorite. It looks like a large rectangle with poles in vertical and horizontal. The Power racks have holes for placing J-hooks to adjust the height of Olympic bar. What is cool is that you can do several exercices with like pull-up, bench press, overhead press and dips.

Smith machine

smith machine

Smith machine looks like Squat racks except that the bar is guided.

Gym staff will tell you that it’s a machine to do squat safe. I don’t advise to use this machine because it forces your body to make unnatural movements. This scientific study ( ) shows that you have better results with a squat with free weights.

The difference between Squat racks and Smith machine is that the bar where you put weights is fixed on Smith machine.

Weight machine

plate loaded machine weight pin loaded stack machine weight

Weight machines are in 2 categories : Pin loaded (stack machine) and Plate loaded. Pin machines have a rectangular weight stack with a hole to put the pin. More the pin is low, more the weight is heavy to lift. What is cool with this machines is that you don’t need to look for weights anywhere in the gym.

With Plate loaded, there is no weights attached to the machine. You put weights on the machine yourself. Plate loaded machines have a wider range of motion than Pin loaded.

Cable machine

cable machine

No matter the size or design of the cable machie, it will always be a pin loaded (stack machine). A handle is at the end of the cable and you can pull or push in different directions. Cable machine can be an alternative for some exercices you do with dumbbells or barbells. Cable machine has a wider range of motion.

Pull-up Bar

pull up bar

You know in most gyms, there is no real pullup bar (like in my gym). If you don’t find a freestanding bar, there are several alternatives like power rack, smith machine or the top of the cable machine.

Dips station

dips station

Usually dips station is integrated into the power rack or the cable machine. You can find some that are freestanding.

Assisted Pullup /Dip station

assisted pull up

It’s a Pin loaded (stack machine). You choose a weight and you put yourself on the platform. The weight you choose will help you to do pullups or dips. For pullups, I advise you to do Lat pulldown and the day where you can lift your bodyweight, you do freestanding pullup.


adjustable bench

Ajustables benches and standard flat benches are types of benches you will see in a gym. To do incline and decline exercices, ajustable bench is perfect. Benches are the equipement the most use in a gym, especially on Monday. I don’t know why but Monday is the international chest’s day and it’s hard to find a bench that day.

Bench press

bench press

Squat stand and Squat rack are use to do bench press in small gyms and Crossfit. In big gyms, there are special bench press with a stand attached.

Equipement items

Now you know the main gym’s equipment, I will show you small equipement items.


collar clip

There are several collars/clips designs but they have the same purpose that is to keep weights safe on the bar.

Weight plates

weight plate

There are several type of plates :

  • Standard metal plates/ rubber encased weight plates

    They’re made of metal and they shouldn’t be thrown to the ground. There are circle with the denomination of weight on. Depending on the weight, they have different diameters.

  • Bumper plates

    They’re made of rubber and can be thrown to the ground for above your head (clean and jerk).

Plates can have a denomination in kilograms or pounds :

Kilogramme : 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20 et 25kg

Pound : 2.5, 5, 10, 25 ou 45lbs.

You can also find plates with a combination of metal and rubber that can be thrown to the ground but not from aboe you head.



This is looks like a cannon balls with handles. Most gym don’t have the same weight repertoire than dumbells but it’s possible to find kettelbells of 24kg (53lbs) and 31.75 (70lbs) and more.

GHR/GHD Machine

ghr ghd machine glute ham raise developer

The translation is « Glute Ham Raise » or « Glute Ham Developer ». With this you can do glute ham raise, back extension or sit ups.

Prowler/Dragging sled

prowler dragging sled

Put weights on a prowler and push or pull while you run.

Strongman equipment

strongman kegs yokes hammers tires atlas stone

If you don’t intend to make a strongman competition, kegs, yokes, hammers, tires and atlas stones are good to do from time to time.

Plyo Boxes

plyo Boxe

These boxes have several size. You jump on and off of.



Those are big rubber bans to work mobility and speed lifts.


It’s funny because people ask me often : « What do I wear ? ». I noticed in gyms, it’s often a fashion show. It’s for this reason beginners are impressed. Unless you have an injury, clothes don’t matter. When I started, I took some clothes that I rarely used and I always do that. Sometimes I see people with cool clothes and I say to myself : « Wow, I have to buy it » and when I see theirs performances I say to myself : « Pffff, show-off ! ».


Gym isn’t a fashion show. You’re not going to win a prize because you’re well dressed. We’re here to sweat so wearing comfortable clothes. You know, my clothes and shoes are torn and the funny thing is that people ask me, if they can train with me because they see my body evolve.


squat deadlift shoes classic converse chuck taylor all star

It’s important to have a good pair of shoes to do deadlift and squat. A good pair of shoes allows you to put your weight on your heels to be as stable as possible. Running shoes don’t allow you to do this because their soft soles. If you don’t have the budget for this type of shoes, the classic Converse Chuck Taylor All Star works well and is what many top powerlifters still wear.

Personally I use my Converse Chuck Taylor All Star for my strenght training and my Puma to run.


Gloves are used to protect hands from callouses. At the beginning, I wore gloves and I still had callouses and sometimes my hands slipped inside gloves because of the sweat. I notices that gloves could also mess up your grip and technique. I don’t use gloves and I don’t recommand to have gloves.

Knee/Wrist wraps

knee wrist wraps

Wraps allow you to have support and stability when you lift heavy weights (squat/deadlift).



Straps allow you to hold the bar longer in your hands. Straps are wrapped around the bar which relives your grip. It’s excellent for intermediate and advanced lifters. Beginners don’t need to use it.

Weightlifting Belt

weightlifting belt leather weightlifting belt velcro

There are 2 type of weightlifting belt : leather or velcro. It’s very usefull for intermediate and advanced lifters. I use my weightlifting belt only for deadlift and squat.

Stop, stop, stop, I see you start to worry about buyiing all this. Don’t panic, the most important thing to have is a good pair of shoes to get started. It’s simple, let’s go my friend.

Whats’s the biggest mistake you made when you started lifting ?

Share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.


Back To The Source Of Equipment (Part 1)

source water rhone

I read a Nerd Fitness articles  and I learned good stuff.

When I began, I went is a small gym at Sous-Moulin . It was a gym in sport center for volleyball, basketball, soccer players. There were only machines (because people stole dumbbells) and when we were 10 people, the gym was full.

2 years later, I went in a real gym. I’ll not lie to you the first time I was alone and I was afraid to the free weight section because I was afraid of hurting myself. But I had so much desire to have the 50 Cent’s body that I watched several times exercice’s video on Youtube and I did it.

On internet, there is a lot of excellent video that explain how to do squat, deadlift, etc. I downloaded videos of my workout program on my smartphone to heard instructions in the gym to do it right. It’s funny, I still have these videos on my smartphone and on my Cloud.

Now I feel good in a gym, I share with you gym’s basic principles and equipment that you’ll see most often. You’ll not have a loser’s head like me the first time.

Gyms filled to the maximum of equipment but you don’t need to use all of them to do an effective strength training. I’ll talk to you about basic equipment.

First time

first time

It’s easy to lose your mind the first time when you go in a gym. There is a lot of things and everyone seems to know what to do.

The most of gyms have :

  • Cardio zone (treadmills, ellipticals, stationary bikes, etc)

  • Free weight zone

  • Group fitness room

  • Locker rooms

There are gyms that have pool, sauna, jacuzzi but it depends.

The fist time you go in a gym, it’s normal to ask for a visit. It’s important to do it because even if you’re used to gyms, you don’t know where are equipements you want to use. It would be a shame if you miss something. I don’t really remember but it was 6 months that I was in a gym and I discovered by chance, hidden in a corner, a machine to work calves.

Free Weight

free wieghts gym

During the visit you’ll see a lot of equipements. Personally I find that the gym’s staff concentrates enormously on machines and cardio during visits. It’s a shame because it’s the least interesting part. Let’s go to the free weight zone.

Barbells can have a size from 1.2m to 2.4m (4’-8 feet) long and a diameter from 25mm – 51mm (0.98’’ – 2’’).

Olympic bar

olympic bar

It’s the standard training barbell (Olympic men’s barbell). This bar is 2.2m (7.2 ft) long and weight 20kg (45lbs). The Olympic bar has bearings that make it spin nicely to help assist the Olympic lift, snatch and the clean and jerk.

There are also gyms that have « woman bar » is 2.1m (6.9 ft) long and weight 15kg (33lbs). There is also smaller bar to lift weight between 4.5kg – 13.6kg (10lbs – 30lbs).

Fixed weight bars

fixed weights bar

This is a small barbell with weights already fixed on it. They’re usually located next to dumbbells.



There are several dumbbell’s design but it’s just for the style. Weights are from 0.45kg to 90kg (1lbs – 200lbs).

Ez-Curl bars

ez-curls bar

This bar is special because it is short and it has « W » form. This bar is only use for curls. I use this bar to do curls because with a normal bar, I have wrist pain, it’s my morphology (read this article). So if you hurt when you do curls with a normal bar, use that one.

Trap bar

trap bar

You can also name this bar « hex bar ». This bar has a hexagonal shape and allows you to be in the middle to lift weights with a neutral grip. This bar allows you to do deadlift and shrugs but it’s not an indispensable bar. Olympic bar is indispensable.

Safety squat bar, Cambered bars, Apollon’s axe, Strongman logs (and others)

safety squat bar cambered bars strongman logs

Theses bars aren’t necessary but it doesn’t mean that it’s useless to use them from time to time. If the gym specialized for Powerlifting, you’ll find these bars.

Share this article if you think it can help someone you know. Thank you.


P.S. To read Part 2, click here.

Choisir Le Gym

choose gym

Tu sais, c’est important de bien choisir le gym pour atteindre tes objectifs. Souvent je m’entraînais dans des endroits qui n’étaient pas bien équipé pour m’aider à évoluer. Et tu sais pourquoi ? C’était à cause du prix.

Plus tard, en étudiant le style de vie des bodybuilders professionnels, j’ai découvert qu’ils pouvaient dépenser $ 1000.- par semaine, uniquement pour la nourriture. C’est clairement plus que l’abonnement annuel dans un gym, c’est impressionnant, non ? C’est ce que dépense Jay Cutler en nourriture.

centre sportif sous-moulin

Ecoute, moi, j’ai commencé avec un banc et 2 haltères dans ma chambre. Puis dans le gym du centre sportif de « Sous-Moulin ». C’était vraiment, vraiment pas cher, CHF 200.- par année. Mais il n’y avait pas d’haltères, pas de barre. Il y avait 2 vélos, 4 machines pour le haut du corps, 1 Leg Press, 1 machine à câble, 1 tapis de course. Ce n’était pas un gym pour le bodybuilding mais pour les joueurs de football, basketball, volleyball et hockey sur glace. Après 1-2 ans, je soulevais presque tout les poids des machines.

Ensuite, j’ai changé pour aller dans le gym « Silhouette » qui est équipé pour les bodybuilders mais c’était CHF 800.- par an. C’était à côté de mon travail. Après j’ai déménagé, changé de travail et je suis aller dans un autre gym Silhouette mais il coûtait CHF 1200 par an. Après 6 mois, j’avais pas tout payé donc ils m’ont bloqué l’accès.


Pendant 2 ans, je ne me suis plus entraîné parce que j’avais vraiment des problèmes d’argent. Mais ça me manquait tellement (mes 2 haltères étaient trop léger) que je me suis dit que maintenant je vais faire un investissement sur mon corps comme je fais un investissement avec mes études.

Je suis retourné au centre sportif de « Sous-Moulin » (ils n’avaient rien changé) et la même chose, 1-2 ans après j’ai changé. Cette fois pour le gym « Non-Stop Gym », CHF 550.- par an. Tout allait bien, les haltères les plus lourds étaient à 32.5kg (71.65lbs), je me disais que j’allais mettre longtemps avant de les soulevé. 6 mois après, il y a un membre du gym qui me raconte que je le regarde de travers. Des personnes nous séparent, ça se calme.

non-stop gym

1 mois après, il fait semblait de m’attaquer par surprise, des personnes nous séparent mais il insiste agressivement. Je fais ce que j’ai à faire, la direction regarde la vidéo et me dit que j’ai fait plus que me défendre, nos abonnements sont résiliés.

En catastrophe, je trouve un « Fitness Park » après de la frontière qui me coûte EUR 350.- par année. Cela fait 1 an que je suis dans ce gym et je soulève 34kg (74.95lbs) au développé couché avec les haltères. « Non-Stop Gym » n’avait pas des haltères de 50kg (110.2lbs). En ce moment ce « Fitness Park » s’agrandit et attire de plus en plus de bodybuilders et des athlètes de Crossfit.

fitness park

J’ai pris la décision de faire une compétition en Men’s Physique en 2018 et ce gym est parfait pour que je puisse atteindre cette objectif. Mais t’as vu mon parcours, dès que j’ai pris la décision d’investir dans mon corps comme pour mes études, je me suis concentré sur la qualité de l’équipement pour atteindre mes objectifs.

Un investissement c’est des résultats sur le long terme, choisir un gym, c’est pareil. Le centre sportif de « Sous-Moulin » était une perte de temps et d’argent.

Et toi ? Comment tu fais pour choisir ton gym ?


Histoire Du Fitness – Etats-Unis – Les années folles des années 1920 et la Grande Dépression (Part 11)

united states roaring twenties

L’intérêt accru dans le fitness s’est dissipé pendant toute la décennie. Un même schéma se répète toujours dans l’histoire de l’humanité après qu’une guerre soit gagné. C’est que la société se relaxe, profite de la vie et fait moins d’exercices. Les années folles des années 1920 ont gagné ce nom à cause de cette raison, la société était la plus frivole que n’importe quelle autre dans l’histoire jusqu’à maintenant. Les priorités étaient manger, boire, faire la fête et d’autres formes de divertissements.

En Octobre 1929, le crash de la bourse a signalé le début d’une décennie de dépression économique. L’économie n’a pas réussi à se rétablir jusqu’à ce que les Etats-Unis entre dans la Seconde Guerre Mondiale en 1941. Avec de nombreuses autres aspects de la vie, les niveaux de conditionnements physiques ont diminué au cours de la Grande Dépression. Les bénéfices que les programmes d’éducation physique ont fait à grâce à la législation qui ont suivi la Première Guerre Mondiale étaient de courtes durées. Les fonds pour ces programmes ont été limité et ont finalement été épuisé à cause de la faiblesse de l’économie.

united states roaring twenties

Malgré les contretemps qu’a subi le fitness durant le Grande Dépression, Jack LaLanne, qui finit par être reconnu comme un pionnier du fitness moderne a commencé sa carrière comme un médiatique instructeur de conditionnement physique. Tout au long de sa vie, LaLanne a prêché les valeurs du style de vie du fitness. Dans les années 1950, le « Jack LaLanne Show » a commencé à être diffusé à la télévision, 25 ans avant les shows de Richard Simmons et de Jane Fonda. LaLanne a développé des programmes de fitness incluant l’aérobic, l’aérobic aquatique et les exercices de résistance. Il a aussi présenté de nombreuse pièces d’équipement d’exercice incluant la première machine à câble, le système sécurisé pour faire du squat appelé la « Machine Smith » et la première machine « Leg extension » pour l’extension des jambes. Bien que LaLanne soit souvent nommé comme l’inventeur du mouvement « Jumping Jack », l’histoire suggère que le vrai inventeur était John « Black Jack » Pershing, un officier tactique de West Point dans la Première Guerre Mondiale. Bien que LaLanne ait précédé les mouvements du fitness moderne de trois décennies, son idéologie et ses programmes d’exercices de conditionnements physique avait une bonne approche comme ont démontré les recherches modernes.

Deuxième Guerre Mondiale

A travers l’histoire du monde, les conflits militaire ont eu une impact majeur sur l’état de la condition physique. La Seconde Guerre Mondiale et ses conséquences sur les Etats-Unis n’ont pas été différent. Essentiellement, le mouvement du fitness moderne a évolué sous l’influence de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale et de la Guerre Froide.

world war 2

Les Etats-Unis sont entré dans la Seconde Guerre Mondiale avec le bombardement de Perl Harbor le 7 décembre 1941. Avec cette déclaration de guerre, il était venu la nécessité de préparer des soldats. Cependant dans le recrutement, il était devenu embarrassant de constaté que beaucoup de personnes étaient inaptes au combat. Quand la guerre a été terminé, il a été reporté que presque la moitié des personnes préparés auraient dû être refusé ou avoir une position de non-combat. Ces statistiques inquiétantes ont aidé à gagner plus d’attention sur l’importance du fitness dans le pays.

Il y a eu d’importantes contributions dans le fitness durant les années 1940, spécialement du Dr. Thomas K. Cureton de l’Université de l’Illinois. Cureton a introduit l’application de la recherche dans le conditionnement physique, ce qui a amélioré les recommandations d’exercices aux particuliers. Cureton n’a pas seulement reconnu les nombreux bénéfices de l’exercice régulier, il cherchait à étendre les connaissance du corps humain avec l’aide du fitness. Il voulait répondre à des questions telles que « combien d’exercices pour être en bonne santé ? » et quels types d’exercices étaient les plus efficaces. Mais le plus important était que Cureton voulait savoir comment la condition physique pourrait être mieux mesuré sur un individu. Parmi ses contributions, les plus importantes étaient le développement de test de conditionnement physique pour l’endurance cardiorespiratoire, la force musculaire et la flexibilité. Ses recherches ont abouti sur plusieurs recommandations pour l’amélioration de la condition cardiorespiratoire, y compris l’identification de l’intensité d’exercice nécessaire pour améliorer les niveaux de condition physique. Ses suggestions sont devenues la base fondamentale de programmes d’exercices futures.

C’est tout pour aujourd’hui. Bientôt la suite de l’histoire du fitness


Histoire Du Fitness – Periode Nationale En Europe (1700 – 1850) Part 6

europe fashion 1700


german soldier 1700

La croissance de la gymnastique en Allemagne peut être principalement attribué au travail de 2 éducateurs physique : Johann Guts Muths et Friedrich Jahn. Johann Guts Muths est généralement désigné comme le « Grand-Père de la gymnastique allemande ». Il a inventé plusieurs programmes d’exercices et l’équipement sur lequel ils sont effectué. Toutes ses œuvres et réalisations se trouvent dans 2 livres – Gymnastique pour les jeunes et les jeux.

Friedrich Jahn a gagné le titre du « Père de la gymnastique allemande » pour son travail de longue durée. C’était tôt dans la vie de Jahn que Napoléon avait conquis une grande partie de l’Europe incluant l’Allemagne. Avec la chute de la France (Napoléon), l’Allemagne a été ensuite divisé en 2 états séparés. La passion de Jahn pour le nationalisme et l’indépendance allemande étaient devenus la force motrice derrière ses créations de programmes de gymnastique. Il croyait que l’invasion de l’Allemagne par un pays étranger pouvait être empêché par le développement physique du peuple allemands. Très vite, des installations d’exercices qui contenaient des appareils conçu pour la course, le saut, l’équilibre, l’escalade et la voûte appelée Turnvereins étaient répandus dans toute l’Allemagne.


sweden 1700

Per Henrik Ling a développé et introduit son propre programme de gymnastiques en Suède qui était composé de 3 différents domaines : 1) gymnastique éducative 2) gymnastique militaire 3) gymnastique médicale. Ling qui avait une solide expérience médicale avait reconnu que les exercices étaient nécessaire pour toutes les personnes. Il maintenait que les programmes d’exercices devaient être conçus en fonction des différences individuelles. Ling croyait aussi que les éducateurs physique devaient posséder la connaissance des effets des exercices sur le corps humain. Ling utilisait la science et la physiologie pour une meilleur compréhension de l’importance du fitness.

C’est tout pour aujourd’hui. Bientôt la suite de l’histoire du fitness